ETH125 Final Exam

Name:

1. Between the year 2000 and 2100, the proportion of the U. S. population that is Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American will likely

  • a. triple.
  • b. decline.
  • c. stay the same.
  • d. double.

2. When belief in the inheritance of behavior patterns is coupled with the feeling that certain groups are inherently superior to others it is called

  • a. racism.
  • b. ethnocentrism.
  • c. prejudice.
  • d. racial formation.

3. The hierarchical system for possession of wealth, prestige, or power is called

  • a. ethnic groups.
  • b. stratification.
  • c. age.
  • d. functionalism.

4.Assimilation tends to take longer under which of the following conditions?

  • a. The minority group maintains its own culture.
  • b. The minority group residents are dispersed.
  • c. The homeland of the immigrants is far away and inaccessible.
  • d. The minority group arrives over an extended period of time.

5. The development of solidarity among ethnic subgroups is called

  • a. pluralism.
  • b. panethnicity.
  • c. fusion.
  • d. marginality.

6. Ethnocentrism is

  • a. the belief that each culture is equally valid.
  • b. the basis for all discriminatory behavior.
  • c. rare in diverse societies.
  • d. the tendency to assume that one’s culture is superior to all others.

7. Hate crimes are criminal offenses committed because of the offender’s bias against a

  • a. race or ethnic group.
  • b. religion group.
  • c. sexual orientation group.
  • d. any of these

8. A negative attitude toward an entire category of people is known as

  • a. prejudice.
  • b. discrimination.
  • c. exploitation.
  • d. authoritarianism.

9. The process of denying certain opportunities and equal rights or privileges to individuals and groups is known as

  • a. prejudice.
  • b. assimilation.
  • c. discrimination.
  • d. ethnocentrism.

10. A group that is blamed irrationally for society’s problems or difficulties is known as a

  • a. contact.
  • b. scapegoat.
  • c. stereotype.
  • d. pluralist.

11. Stereotypes are generalizations about all members of a group that

  • a. are unreliable.
  • b. are exaggerated.
  • c. do not take individual differences into account.
  • d. all of these

12. Any police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than behavior is called

  • a. stereotyping.
  • b. scapegoating.
  • c. racial profiling.
  • d. driving while black (DWB).

13. The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups which results from the normal operations of a society is known as

  • a. prejudice.
  • b. the contact hypothesis.
  • c. the definition of a situation.
  • d. institutional discrimination.

14. Transfers of money, goods, or services that are not reported to the government and are common in inner-city neighborhoods and poverty-stricken neighborhoods and poverty-stricken rural areas is known as the

  • a. casual economy.
  • b. informal economy.
  • c. unceremonious economy.
  • d. comfortable economy.

15. As of 2003, which of the following groups had the lowest median income?

  • a. Hispanic females
  • b. Black males
  • c. White females
  • d. Black females

16. The 1964 Civil Rights Act led to the establishment of the

  • a. Glass Ceiling Commission.
  • b. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC).
  • c. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
  • d. Affirmative Action Board.

17. Minorities are discriminated against by redlining when

  • a. police practice racial profiling.
  • b. speed limits are rigorously enforced in certain neighborhoods.
  • c. students with low test scores are failed.
  • d. mortgages are denied for houses in minority neighborhoods.

18. Which term refers to positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities?

  • a. affirmative action
  • b. institutional discrimination
  • c. the quota system
  • d. goal displacement

19. The charge that affirmative action programs unfairly penalize White males leads to the view of

  • a. thnocentrism.
  • b. reverse discrimination.
  • c. underclass.
  • d. secondary labor market.

20. About __________ of the U. S. population today is foreign-born.

  • a. 25%
  • b. 12%
  • c. 40%
  • d. 65%

21. Beliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants is called

  • a. racism.
  • b. ethnocentrism.
  • c. nativism.
  • d. absolute deprivation.

22. The Chinese Exclusion Act

  • a. was passed with little debate by Congress.
  • b. outlawed Chinese immigration for 10 years.
  • c. denied naturalization to Chinese already in the U. S.
  • d. all of these

23. The quotas under the national origins system were based on

  • a. roportions of people desiring to enter the United States from abroad.
  • b. waiting lists of people wishing to immigrate to the United States.
  • c. the number of people descended from each nationality recorded in the 1920 census.
  • d. ability to pay for visas.

24. Which term refers to the immigration to the United States of skilled workers, professionals, and technicians who are desperately needed by their home countries?

  • a. population explosion
  • b. brain drain
  • c. undocumented workers
  • d. national origins

25. The best available information suggests that __________ illegal immigrants live in the United States.

  • a. ore than 8 million
  • b. somewhat over 3 million
  • c. more than 20 million
  • d. less than 400,000

26. From a __________ perspective, by paying low wages to illegal immigrants, employers are able to produce goods and services that are profitable and affordable.

  • a. conflict
  • b. interactionist
  • c. exchange
  • d. functionalist

27. People living outside their country of citizenship for fear of political or religious persecution are called

  • a. asylees.
  • b. refugees.
  • c. transnationals.
  • d. remittances.

28. What is the effect of placing the former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) under the auspices of Homeland Security?

  • a.It makes it nearly impossible for terrorists to get into the country.
  • b. It sends a chilling message to immigrants who are portrayed as potential terrorists.
  • c. It eliminates employment opportunities for immigrants, the only real way to slow immigration.
  • d. all of these

29. The first Africans in colonial America were indentured servants whose children were

  • a. designated as slaves.
  • b. born free people.
  • c. also indentured servants.
  • d. sent back to Africa.

30. Among the factors contributing to the loss of African cultures by the slaves in America was that

  • a. they were forbidden to practice their native religion.
  • b. slaves had no time apart from the slave owners.
  • c. slaves had no opportunity to communicate with one another.
  • d. they lost all memory of their native homes.

31. The Emancipation Proclamation

  • a. worsened the state of the slave status.
  • b. freed the slaves in the Confederacy.
  • c. freed all slaves.
  • d. was eradicated by the Supreme Court.

32. During the Reconstruction period

  • a. Whites and Blacks could not marry one another.
  • b. schools remained segregated.
  • c. Blacks were elected to many public offices.
  • d. Blacks were not allowed to organize political groups.

33. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court

  • a. upheld the right of governments to deny the right to vote on the basis of race.
  • b. ended the right of individuals to practice racial discrimination.
  • c. strengthened Jim Crow laws, and “separate but equal” became the law of the land.
  • d. said that the states could not pass laws which created racial segregation.

34. The Niagara Movement directly led to the formation of the

  • a. Urban League.
  • b. Black Panther’s Party.
  • c. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
  • d. Million Man March.

35. The military was desegregated by order of President

  • a. Roosevelt.
  • b. Truman.
  • c. Kennedy.
  • d. Johnson.

36. Striking down de jure school segregation in the 1950s was

  • a. the Dred Scott decision.
  • b. Plessy v. Ferguson.
  • c. Brown v. Board of Education.
  • d. Williams v. Mississippi.

37. Which of the following was part of Martin Luther King, Jr. ’s civil disobedience strategy?

  • a. Active nonviolent resistance
  • b. Seeking to win the friendship and understanding of opponents
  • c. Willingness to accept suffering without retaliation
  • d. all of these

38. Government records made public in 1973 revealed that the FBI

  • a. had infiltrated the Ku Klux Klan to detect violent crimes against African Americans.
  • b. ad infiltrated civil rights groups to discredit them.
  • c. knew about Kennedy’s assassination in advance.
  • d. believed civil rights activists were good and loyal Americans.

39. Stokely Carmichael differed from King in that Carmichael rejected the goal of

  • a. assimilation into White middle class society.
  • b. Blacks creating new institutions.
  • c. group solidarity.
  • d. Black power.

40. The education gap between Whites and Blacks has narrowed, but in 2003_________ White men held a college degree compared with Black men.

  • a. twice as many
  • b. three times as many
  • c. four times as many
  • d. six times as many

41. Data since the 1960s indicate that

  • a. there is more racial diversity now than ever before in public schools.
  • b. public schools are becoming increasingly segregated by race.
  • c. apartheid in education is a thing of the past.
  • d. African-American students are more likely to have white classmates than 30 years ago.

42. An African American family is __________ likely to live below the poverty line than a non-Hispanic white family.

  • a. three times more
  • b. twice as
  • c. no more
  • d. five times more

43. Black sociologist Franklin Frazier viewed members of the Black middle class as

  • a. exhibiting extreme prejudices.
  • b. lucky.
  • c. concerned with the plight of the underclass.
  • d. preoccupied with becoming acceptable to White society.

44. A number of Muslim and Arab nonprofit organizations have formed to accomplish which of the following?

  • a. Represent their political interests
  • b. Promote understanding
  • c. Bring attention to discrimination and prejudice
  • d. all of these

45. A simplistic view of the people and history of the Orient without recognition of cultural diversity and change over time is called __________.

  • a. racism
  • b. orientalism
  • c. deficit model of ethnic identity
  • d. Panethnicity

46. In which of the following ways are Arab Americans diverse?

  • a. time of arrival to the U.S.
  • b. a rich variety of religious traditions
  • c. point of origin
  • d. all of these

47. There are large percentages of Muslim Americans who are

  • a. South Asian.
  • b. African American.
  • c. Arab.
  • d. all of these

48. The Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears are examples of

  • a. expulsion.
  • b. extermination.
  • c. genocide.
  • d. all of these

49. In an effort to assimilate Native Americans into White Society, the federal government

  • a. tried to weaken tribal institutions.
  • b. provided extensive training and resources so Native Americans could become homesteaders.
  • c. recognized and respected tribal identity.
  • d. rotected the authority of tribal governments.

50. Today there are 557 Indian reservations in the U. S. , comprising __________ of the land throughout the U. S.

  • a. half
  • b. one-third
  • c. about 2 percent
  • d. one-quarter

51. Which of the following describes pan-Indianism?

  • a. intertribal social movements
  • b. several tribes which are joined by political goals unite
  • c. several tribes unite in a common identity
  • d. all of these

52. Nationwide, __________ of employed Native Americans earn less than $10,000.

  • a. one-tenth
  • b. one-quarter
  • c. one-third
  • d. one-half

53. What’s the problem with the term Native American?

  • a. It doesn’t reflect the Indians’ names for themselves.
  • b. It originated from the perception of Whites.
  • c. It includes a diverse group under the same generic name.
  • d. all of these

54. The development of solidarity among ethnic groups, as reflected in the term Hispanic, is

  • a. out-group bonding.
  • b. panethnicity.
  • c. assimilation.
  • d. immersion.

55. Nearly _______ of Hispanics in the United States are Mexican Americans.

  • a. one-fourth
  • b. one-half
  • c. one-third
  • d. two-thirds

56. The largest Hispanic group in the United States after Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans is

  • a. Salvadorans.
  • b. Brazilians.
  • c. Cubans.
  • d.Haitians.

57. Marielitos refers to a recent group of refugees who arrived in the United States from

  • a. Haiti.
  • b. Puerto Rico.
  • c. Cuba.
  • d. Dominican Republic.

58. Cuban immigration increased tremendously

  • a. after the 1959 Cuban Revolution.
  • b. with the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
  • c. after Che Batista’s assumption of power.
  • d. after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

59. Among the factors that distinguish Central and South Americans in the United States from each other is

  • a. language.
  • b. skin color.
  • c. social class.
  • d. all of these

60. The poverty rate among Latinos in the U. S. is

  • a. 8%.
  • b. 22%.
  • c. 80%.
  • d. 1%.

61. The program of deporting Mexicans during the 1930s was called

  • a. los mojados.
  • b. repatriation.
  • c. Operation Wetback.
  • d. the bracero program.

62. The term La Raza is used to connote pride in

  • a. the White race.
  • b. a pluralistic Spanish, Indian, and Mexican heritage.
  • c. Puerto Rican culture.
  • d. the literature of Navajo Indians.

63. Which of the following is true about migrant workers in the U. S.?

  • a. They are much more likely to suffer from poor nutrition.
  • b. The majority lack health insurance.
  • c. Most make less than $10,000 year.
  • d. all of these

64. The Jones Act of 1917 granted Puerto Ricans

  • a. statehood.
  • b. independence.
  • c. citizenship.
  • d. the right to use English as the official language.

65. Among Puerto Ricans who live on the island, __________ speak only English.

  • a. 8%
  • b. 15%
  • c. 20%
  • d. 35%

66. When a group experiences prejudice and discrimination, yet seems to have succeeded economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to political or violent confrontations with Whites, they are said to be a

  • a. model minority.
  • b. passive minority.
  • c. nonlimited minority.
  • d. winner minority.

67. Of the following, which Asian American group has the highest levels of educational achievement?

  • a. Asian Indians
  • b. Vietnamese
  • c. Hmong
  • d. Cambodian

68. In 2002, _______ of Asian Americans over age 25 held bachelor’s degrees compared to 30. 6% of Whites.

  • a. 32%
  • b. 57%
  • c. 45%
  • d. 12%

69. Which of the following statements is true regarding Asian Americans and income?

  • a. On average, they earn more than Whites.
  • b. Their income is related to school achievement.
  • c. They earn less per year of education than Whites with the same educational attainment.
  • d. all of these

70. __________ comprise the largest Asian American group.

  • a. Japanese Americans
  • b. Vietnamese immigrants
  • c. Chinese Americans
  • d.Filipinos

71. Following the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act, Chinese became eligible to immigrate again in

  • a. 1884.
  • b. 1898.
  • c. 1943.
  • d. 1965.

72. The term Issei refers to

  • a. Chinese immigrants to the U. S.
  • b. Japanese immigrants to the U. S.
  • c. American-born Chinese.
  • d. American-born Japanese.

73. Which President is responsible for the order to place Japanese Americans in evacuation camps during WWII?

  • a. Harry S Truman
  • b. Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • c. Lyndon Johnson
  • d. Woodrow Wilson

74. Compared to Whites, Japanese Americans as a group have

  • a. more education but occupy lower status jobs.
  • b. etter jobs despite overall lower educational attainment.
  • c. lower levels of educational attainment and occupy poorer jobs.
  • d. higher wages and more education.

75. Which of the following is a problem in Chinatowns?

  • a. Women live a harsh existence, sometimes including domestic violence.
  • b. Lower class youth, who are not part of the model minority, turn to gangs such as the Ghost Shadows and Flying Dragons.
  • c. Immigration has led to increases in crime and housing problems.
  • d. all of these

76. The concept of race is

  • a. determined by blood type.
  • b. biologically based on genetically isolate groups.
  • c. socially constructed.
  • d. predicted by skin shade increments.

77. The act of conferring citizenship on a person after birth is called

  • a. de facto citizenship
  • b. nativism
  • c. naturalization
  • d. residential citizenship

78. The enactment of the Civil Rights Act on July 2, 1964 was under

  • a. President Jimmy Carter
  • b. President Ronald Regan
  • c. President Gerald Ford
  • d. President Lyndon B. Johnson

79. The single most unifying force among Arabs are

  • a. geography
  • b. religion
  • c. clothing
  • d. language

80. Tribal self-rule is called

  • a. sovereignty
  • b. powwows
  • c. kickouts or pushouts
  • d. set-offs