A religious group that has broken away from an established church
Who wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and keep power
Niccolò Machiavelli
A government run by religious leaders
Who proposed a heliocentric model of the universe
Nicolaus Copernicus
An artist who made sketches of flying machines centuries before the first airplane
Leonardo da Vinci
Who showed that gravity keeps planets in orbit
Isaac Newton
Who started a printing revolution
Johann Gutenberg
The idea that God long ago decided who would be saved and who would not
The city that produced many Renaissance artists and scholars with the support of the Medici family
A thriving trading region where the northern Renaissance began
One way the Renaissance artist reflected the new ideas of humanism was by painting
What major theme of the northern Renaissance did Albrecht Dürer's engraving portray
Modern life
The Swiss city-state of Geneva became a model of Protestant morality under the leadership of
John Calvin
What resulted from the Peace of Augsburg in 1555
Allowed each prince to decide which religion catholic or Lutheran
Anabaptists believed that infants should not be baptized because
They are to young to understand what it means to accept the Christian faith
Humanist scholars differed from medieval thinkers in that humanists
Focused on worldly subjects rather than religious issues
Sir Thomas More was executed because he
Refused to accept the king as head of the Church of England
The purpose of the Council of Trent was to
Establish the direction of catholic reforms
Unlike Francis Bacon, René Descartes believed that the best road to understanding was through what
Human reasoning
In the 1600s, Robert Boyle's work transformed the field of
The age of great change marked by renewed interest in classical learning and the arts is called the
Who assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts preserving the works of Cicero, Homer, and Virgil
Francesco Petrarch
The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa were the work of the great artist
Leonardo da Vinci
Which statement best describes the ideal woman according to writer Baldassare Castiglione
Women were kind, graceful, and lively, and possessed outward beauty
What humanist of Northern Europe wrote about his vision of an ideal society, in which people live in peace and harmony
Thomas More
The inventor who perfected the microscope and was the first person to see cells and microorganisms was
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
The calculations of astronomer Johannes Kepler showed that
Plotted the order of the planets and discovered that they are elliptical
What triggered the events that resulted in the formation of the Church of England
Henry VIII wanted a divorce
Today's Baptists, Mennonites, and Amish can all trace their religious ancestry to the
What changes did the Catholic Church make during the Catholic Reformation
It revised and updated the catholic beliefs
The main goal of the Jesuits was to
Create schools in Europe, convert Christians to catholic, stop Protestantism
Many scholars agree that between 1450 and 1750 people's beliefs in both Christianity and magic led to
The persecution of people as witches
Who described architecture as a "social art" meant to combine beauty with utility and improvement of society
Leon Alberti
In the scientific method, a hypothesis is
A logical or possible explanation to a problem to be tested
How did Martin Luther react when peasant rebels took up here s banner as a means of bringing about social change in Germany
He denounced the peasants, and the rebellion was suppressed