The rich history of Ancient Egypt, many of the world’s best Egyptologists and scientists, have tried long and hard for the past six years to find out who “Lady X” starting with Joann Fletcher in 2003, she took part in a controversial expedition to the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, where they claimed to have found the mummy of Queen Nefertiti, among the cache in tomb KV35. Dr. Fletcher, with the Discovery Channel, was able to thoroughly provide a detailed background pertaining to the tomb and the properties of the discovered bodies.
The mummy which previously unidentified was first discovered by French Egyptologist Victor Loret, who had entered the King’s Valley, tomb thirty-five. The tomb not only had the Queens mummy, but also a large number of other royal members, which had been moved into Amenhotep the II’s tomb, to ensure their protection from thieves . (Mummy Tomb) The bodies were placed side by side, near the back left corner, and their feet pointed towards the door. Her broken arm had been placed by her side and her nails scatted. The linen wrappings were removed, as if someone was in a hurry..
The well-preserved hair hung loosely from the skull of the woman. The second mummy, in the middle, appeared to have been an adolescent. This mummy was naked, with the hands placed on the abdomen. The head which appeared to have been shaved, except on the right temple, The final corpse appeared to have been an elderly woman, who had a gaping mouth, large lips and a small stature. All the mummies appeared to have their skulls pierced with a large hole and the breast of each of them was opened. The information that Loret and his team had provided would have helped in the sparking the interest of Dr.
Joanne Fletcher, who aspired to solve this mystery. Dr. Fletcher, deciding to solve this mystery, devoted nearly twelve years to uncover the truth that envelopes this case. Dr. Fletcher’s investigation began with access to a nineteen-o-seven photo, taken by Loret and his team, during their excavation. She would later travel to Berlin, Germany to examine the famous bust of Queen Nefertiti and would return to England waiting to be granted permission into Egypt. Discovery Channel and other sponsors were able to help Dr.
Fletcher enter the secret chamber. When Dr. Fletcher arrived, she had conducted and x-ray and CT scans to begin her investigation on the Nefer Beads, which were noted to be a common accessory among the Armarna royalty. Dr. Hawass, who also noted such a finding in his History Channel, film, explains that it not enough to support the following claim: Queen Nefertiti is Lady X. However, Dr. Fletcher had explained that the images presented in the Berlin bust and carvings on the tablets and walls, bare testimony to her wearing of the Nefer Beads. Lady X”, the name to denote the female mummy of King’s Valley, thirty-five, was debated greatly.
Dr. Donald Brothwell, a notable forensic scientist, after studying the teeth of Lady X, concluded that she was of her early twenties to her early thirties. His reasoning for this was that the wisdom teeth were not well formed. Brothwell’s noting of her age, also coincides with Dr. Fletcher’s estimation. This means that this woman was a candidate of birthing six children. (Google Docs)
Scans that were conducted by Dr. Hawass and his team have shown that the woman’s age is between early twenties to her late forties and confirmed that she was a woman, based on her skeletal structure, such as the large pelvis, that has undergone a lot of childbirths, as well as the thin arms and leg bones. The mummy’s widened pelvis, both of which Dr. Fletcher and Dr. Howass noted, was a result of several pregnancies. The missing woman is also missing a right arm and her left arm has a bend. The right arm that was found in the tomb seems to work well, if it is attached to the woman’s body.
The left arm is in a position that imitated a Pharaoh and was probably in that position to accommodate space for the sceptre. Dr. Fletcher believed that the arm that would seem to perfectly fit Lady X’s corpse. Her find gives Lady X a more regal appearance. Dr. Hawass, however, believes that her claims were wrong. With a highly skilled team he conducts a CT scan and notices the contrasting lengths of the left arm and right arms. This is the one of the little evidence that Dr. Hawass presents, which rejects the idea of Lady X being Nefertiti.
Both of the Egyptologists are able to conclude that the wounds on Lady X’s body are a result of conflict and revenge. The twelve centimeter gash that is placed on her ribcage was expected to have been a result of conflict. Dr. Fletcher’s team recreated the situation using the corpse of a pig, to help simulate the death and cause. The using of a blunt object, particularly the axe, was a possibility, base on simulations run on the pig. The other wound, the one that is on her face, could have been a purposeful attack, to force her to remain between the Earth and the place of the Afterlife.
Dr. Hawass also believes that the gash placed on the rib cage is a revenge attack, but the gash placed on her mouth is too weak to have been a revenge attack. Finally, the wounds seemed to have fit Nefertiti the most, as she was married to Ikhnaton or Akhenaton, the heretic king, a man who radically changed the religion of Egypt from polytheism to henotheism. Dr. Fletcher directs her attention to the hair found, to see if there are parallels between her pictures and the body. The mummy had worn a tight band, which was used for holding the Nubian style wig of the eighteenth dynasty.
A wig was found near the mummy. The hair quality and preservations explains that the hair was of great quality. Her attention to the hair was a good decision. Dr. Hawass had ignored the hair and overlooking a great piece of evidence. The embalming techniques that were used to preserve the mummies are the eighteenth dynasty. The use of that quality of preserving materials is only noted in the eighteenth dynasty. Fletcher notes this observation, as it is one of her stronger observations. Although, Dr. Fletcher did not note this, the skull of Lady X is a dolichocephalic skull.
Dolichocephalic skulls, which are present in the Egyptian royal dynasty, are common traits that unify the family. The skull of Lady X is elongated, which shares similarities to Tutankhamen. Since Nefertiti is a step-mother and also a blood relative of Tutankhamen her genetics may have passed onto him. Since Lady X and Tutankhamen’s head are more than seventy-five centimetres, it is another unifying characteristic. If Dr. Fletcher had noted this, it would have supported her already strong belief. Next, the strong resemblance of the curved neck of the bust to the mummy is critical piece of information.
Dr. Hawass disputed this, saying that the art was not realistic, but idealistic. He further explains that the resemblance was coincidental. This final piece of evidence is what gives Dr. Fletcher the information she need to present and support her claims. Finally, the tomb, King’s Valley, thirty-five, is home to many royalties, particularly Lady X. the tomb that Dr. Fletcher enters appears to be an unfinished tomb or a tomb that seems to have been desecrated by sacrilegious people of thieves.
However, Dr. Hawass, when conducting his investigation, enters a well-designed that appears to have been complete and one body seems to be missing, young boy. Clearly, there has been some sort of “foul play” when Dr. Fletcher was conducting her research. Dr. Hawass, who is a man of power, must have deliberately increased the visual appeal of the tomb to attract more viewers’ attentions and deride Dr. Fletcher and her finding. Queen Tiye and Lady X were the ones that were found with Dr. Hawass, in the aesthetically appealing room and the three mummies, Lady X, Queen Tiye and a young boy, possibly Akhenaton or Ikhnaton’s brother were part of her room.
Dr. Fletcher’s tomb appears to be small and crumbling, whereas Dr. Hawass’ tomb is spacious and well-lit. Along with this. Dr. Fletcher, on the other hand, retains an unbiased nature, referring to the mummy as Lady X throughout her documentary and retains poise and composure. Dr. Joann Fletcher has shed light on a mystery that has baffled many Egyptologists and enthusiasts of Ancient Egyptian History. The superabundance of information which she had noted, to substantiate her claims, her composure and poised nature and “scholarly” behaviour had helped present her as a trustworthy, and intellectual, well-versed historian.
Dr. Hawass, however, disregards the correct conduct involved in research and behaviour, losing many followers. Dr. Joanne Fletcher has not only emblazoned her name in the world of historical knowledge, but has also presented a notable find, through credible means. Egyptians mummies are fascinating, captivate our heart but also baffle us, leaving us puzzled and our brains hurting. There are many secrets of Ancient Egypt and only a few have been revealed to us. In year two-thousand and five, new technology conducted CT scans and analyzed King Tutankhamun’s mummy and proved his skull had been bored during the mummification process.
The study also showed us that King Tutankhanmun died at the age of nine-teen, after suffering from an unhealed leg fracture. With the progression of new technologies solving the mysteries of Ancient Egypt would be no more than child’s play. But knowing this how could we find out who Lady X is? Simply by using DNA, we can trace back his immediate family, proving Nefertiti is not Lady X, but someone else is. Using advance DNA detecting equipment along with CT scans, and after long extensive research the identities of four mummies were known: Tutankhamun, Amenhoptep III, Yuya and Tuyu.
An unidentified, male mummy was also found is in KV55, based on archeological reports the mummy is Akhenaten or Smenkhkare. In tomb KV35 two unidentified females, “Elder Lady” and the “Younger Lady” had been discovered, unwrapped lying in a hidden chamber, in the tomb of Amenhotep II. The architecture of this tomb suggests a date in the 18th dynasty, and both mummies hold their left fist against their chest in what is generally interpreted as a queenly pose. (National Geographic) Later research has proven the “Elder Lady” is Queen Tiye, but “Younger Lady” has not been identified.
To reveal and find the identities, DNA tests must be done. Samples, from Tutankhamun’s tissues were taken, from deep within his bone and were studied in laboratories. Taking samples without destroying the feathery bones requires extreme care. Within the DNA, it would need to be strained to separate the DNA from resign, balms and ointments applied to the mummy. Through painstaking means for six months, the DNA had finally been extracted and ready for use. After obtaining the DNA of Tutankhamun, Yuya, Amenhotep III, and the unknown male in KV55, the identity of his father was being undergone.
The problem occurs with flaws in translations and recordings. In many scripts and art works Tutankhamun refers to Amenhotep III as father, but in others he is referred to as grandfather or even ancestor. (National Geographic) In addition, it is not logical to assume Amenhotep III is his father since he had dies several years before his birth. It is also believed that the father of Tutankhamun was Akhenaten. On a inscribe block found in Amarna, Tutankhamun is said to be one of the beloved children of Akhenaten. Some belive Tutankhamun was the mysterious Smenkhkare.
Using the sampled DNA collected, scientists can compare Y chromosomes of King Amenhotep III and Tutankhamun to verify if they are related in any way. After teams of special scientists analyzed the DNA they had determined that Amenhotep III was the father of the individual in KV55, who was in turn the father of Tutankhamun. After comparing and analyzing DNA, Tutankhamun’s father has been identified, but his identity still remains unknown. The identities had been narrowed down to Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Tutankhamun had brought the body of Akhenaten or Smenkhkare from Amarna to bury them in tomb KV55, in the Thebes.
To make the identification more difficult the pharaoh’s name had been chiseled off the sarcophagus. After analyzing the male’s DNA, scientists move back to tomb KV35 to inspect the “Young” and “Elder Women” again. The “Elder Lady” a mummy with long red hair falling across shoulders had been matched with a strand of this hair found within a miniature coffin in Tutankhamun’s tomb. After comparing DNA from “Elder Lady’s” mummy to the corpses of Yuya and Tuyu, it has been confirmed “Elder Lady” is Queen Tiye.
The anthropological and archeological community had done more CT cans and DNA comparisons to the mummy found in KV55. CT scans much degeneration in the spine and arthritis in the knees and legs. It appears the mummy had died closer to the age of forty. With the age, scientist had concluded that the mummy which lies in KV55 is the son of Amenhotep III and Tiye and the father of Tutankhamun, which is Akhenaten. Returning back to the “Younger Lady”, a DNA test had been conducted and surprisingly had traces of Tutankhamun’s DNA. Forensic teams claim her DNA is similar to Akhenaten, thus making her one of the daughter’s of Amenhotep III.
Which daughter could the “Young lady” be? Lady X or “Young lady” cannot be Akhenaten’s wife Nefertit or even his second wife Kiya, which was supposedly Tutankhamun’s mother. Therefore, Tutankhamun’s mother cannot be found in Tomb KV35. The extensive DNA analysis and scientific analysis conclude it has to be one of the many daughters’ Amenhotep III created. Using archeological logic it will be very easy to deduce which daughter this is. The daughter must have obviously had great and significant importance, but was also close and rather important to Queen Tye.
To be placed beside one of the greatest queens of the Egyptian eighteenth dynasty shows “Young Lady” was extremely high in the social and economic class. Located in Amarna a small temple for Yuya was found. In the north corridor a large beautiful etching is placed on the walls. Under the rays of Aten, Ahmenhotep III and Queen Tiye are together, between them is a young girl named Beketaten. Archeologists have discovered and call this girl Beketaten because her name is inscribed on the wall; in addition she is the daughter of Ahmnehotep III and Queen Tiye.
With this, it shows this daughter has great and significant importance and is portrayed in the etching as girl, favourite amongst the other daughters, beside her mother as if she is an equal. In conclusion, after examing the only proof of Beketaten’s existence, who other than the favourite daughter of Queen Tiye, would be rested beside her to travel together to the realm of the Afterlife. In conclusion, after carefully analyzing the various evidences it is most reasonable to assume “Young Lady” is Beketaten, daughter of Ahmnehotep III and Queen Tiye.