Stages of cognitive development
Primitive stage (0-2)
Elementary mental functions
Vygotsky claimed that infants are born with the basic materials/abilities for intellectual development.

Sensation
Perception
Attention
Memory

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Higher mental functions
Through interaction within the sociocultural environment, these elementary functions are developed into more sophisticated and effective mental processes/strategies.

Graphological skills
Abstract thinking
Problem solving
Oral and written language

Zone of proximal development (1978)
Range of tasks that are slightly too difficult for a child to do alone but can be accomplished with guidance from an adult.
More knowledgeable other
The person who has a better understanding than the learner with respect to a particular task or concept.
Scaffolding
Guided learning where the MKO structures a learning encounter with a child, leading the child through the steps.
Internalisation
Gradual internalisation of interpersonal exchanges, children move from:
1) Completing task in interaction with adult (imitation)

2) Completing task independently with considerable self talking (ego-centric speech)

3) Completing tasks independently with NO SELF TALK (ingrowth stage)

Cultural mediation of development
Vygotsky sees cognitive functions as socio-culturally determined.
They are affected by beliefs and values of the culture in which a person develops.
Through interaction, knowledge is gained and responses reflect the shared culture.
Tools of intellectual adpatation
Allow children to use the basic mental function more effectively and these are culturally determined.