Rank the steps in the looking glass self in the correct order from first to last
1. We imagine how we present ourselves to others
2. We imagine how others evaluate us
3. We develop feeling about ourselves as a result of various impressions
In George Herbert Meads stages of the self, children become more aware of social relationships and take the role of others in the _____ stage
Play
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As we grow up and grow older peers increasingly assume the role of significant other, true or false
true
The process by which individuals learn the attitudes values and behaviors appropriate for a particular culture is called
socialization
According to George Herbert Mead's theory of the self during the preporatory stage
1. Our own thoughts feelings and the desires are the center focus of our world
2. We view events from our own vantage points and do not comprehend the perspectives of others
In George Herbert Mead's stages of the self the ___ stage is when children begin to understand not only their own social positions but those of others around them
game
Which two of the following types of mass media has the most profound effect on childhood socialization in the US
1. TV
2. Internet
Transitions that bring about changes in ones life are called
rights of passage
When sociologists use the term agents of socialization they are referring to
different social forces that influence our lives our lives and after our self image
Socially defined expectations of male and female behaviors attitudes and activities are called _____ roles
gender
Microsociology
Focuses on how individuals learn to behave properly in regards to society's norms and values
Macrosociology
focuses on the transmission of a culture from one generation to the next
Susan is talking on her cell phone while taking an exam. When her professor walks towards her desk she hides her phone so she appears to be focused on the exam. What is Susan is engaging in?
Impression management
According to George Herbert Mead's children mimic or imitate others during the ____ stage of development
preparation
The two types of socialization that occur at many points throughout life are anticipatory socialization and
resocialization
The phase "looking glass self" refers to our view of ourselves that comes from
1. Our impressions of how others perceive us
2. Imagining how we present ourselves to others
3. Contemplation of our personal qualities
Which of the following require resocialization?
1. Giving birth
2. Divorce
3. Moving to another state
Recent studies involving identical twins note that certain characteristics appeared to be strikingly similar even in twins reared apart. What were some of the characteristics?
1. temperaments
2. nervous habits
3. voice patterns
In 1971 researcher Harry Harlow conducted a study of rhesus monkeys that were raised in isolation from their mothers and other monkeys with those that were not raised in isolation. What were some of the characteristics of the monkeys that were raised in isolation?
1. The monkeys were fearful and easily frightened
2. Mating were problematic among the monkeys
3. The females who were artificially inseminated became abusive mothers
As in most societies the most important agent of socialization in the US is?
family
Personality refers to
a person typical patterns of attitudes needs characteristics and behavior
The term generalized other refers to
how children consider the effects of their behavior in society as a whole
Media supersedes religion as a socialization agent even for people who believe strongly in the teachings of a divinity
false
Which of the following statements reflect the importance of human contact in the socialization process?
1. Toddlers social interaction is critical for emotional growth
2. Human relationships are shaped through socialization
3. social isolation affects children's ability to communicate affectively
Which agents of socialization play the primary the primary role in guiding roles in guiding children toward acceptable gender roles in society?
Parents and family
Learning to behave appropriately at work represents
a fundamental aspect of occupational socialization
The connections that individuals make with people in different social circles are known as?
networks
Types of Groups
1. reference group- wall street financiers to a financie major
2. secondary group- fellow members of a national association
3. primary group-someone parents and siblings
sociologists use the term _____ to describe the ways in which people respond to one another
social interaction
Which of the following are elements of social structure?
1. groups
2. roles
3. statuses
There are a number of functions that a social institution must fulfill to survive. What are some of those functions?
1. Preserving order
2. teaching new recruits
3. providing a sense of purchase
True or false. Race/Ethnicity and gender often function as master statuses, affecting and individuals potential to achieve a desired professional or social or social status
true
The meaning we attach to someones behavior tend to reflect the norms and values of?
the dominant culture
the health care system, the mass media and the government are all examples of?
social instituations
A number of people with similar norms, values and expectations who interact with each other on a regular basis is known as
group
What is a small group that is characterized by intimate face to face association and cooperation called?
primary group
Your best friend decides to become a goth acting different from her previous self. She has adopted the goths as a
reference group
A status that individuals attain through their own efforts is a _____ status
achieved
A virtual network is one way to establish and r maintain social networks electronically. Which of the following are examples of a virtual world or virtual network
1. Blogs
2. Facebook
A set of expectations for people who occupy a given position or status is called a social ______
role
Which of the following are examples of social institutions?
1.mass media
2. religion
3. government
3. family
A ____ group is a small group that is characterized by intimate face to face association and cooperation?
primary
Interactionists theorists believe that our social behavior is conditioned by
1. the institutions within which we function
2. the roles and statuses we accept
3. the groups to which we belong
A person having a difficult time performing all of the duties required by their difficult and demanding job is experiencing role _____
strain
Members of which of the following groups have by definition and collective sense of "us"
in group
Everyone holds many different and sometimes conflicting statuses. The statuses that dominates the others and determines a persons general position in society is called
master status
What do sociologists call a group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves as their own behavior called?
reference group
There are a number of functions that a social institution must fulfill to survive what are some of those functions?
1. preserving order
2. providing a sense of purpose
3. teaching new recruits
According to the sociologist Herbert Blumer the distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that "human beings interpret or 'define' each others actions instead of merely reacting to each others actions." In other words our response to other people's behavior is based in the __ we attach to their actions.
meaning
Sarah is looking for a job and her friend Taylor tells her uncle who tells his friend this process is called ____ networking
social
Statuses, social roles, groups, social networks and social institutions, are the five elements of social ___
structure
The process of disengaging from a role that is central to one's self identity to establish a new role and identity is called
role exit
Lee is supervising her best friend at work and must admonish him for a policy violation she will likely experience role _____
conflict
According to the interactionists perspective the meaning we attach to peoples behaviors are shaped by _____
our interactions with them and with larger society
functionalist view
institutions must fulfill a number of specific duties to survive
interactionists view
institutions affect our everyday functioning including the roles we play
conflict view
institutions exist to serve the needs of groups in power
according to the functionalist view which of the following are the major tasks of a social institution of it is to survive?
1. Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
2. teaching new recruits
3. producing and distributing goods and services
4. preserving order
5. replacing personnel
rank the four stages of role exit
1. doubt
2. search for alternatives
3. action or departure
4. creation of new identity
social reality is constructed from
1. social interaction
2. a particular groups power within a society
3. the ability of the dominant group to define the societies value
Which of the following is an example of the ideal purpose of a coalition?
Affluent and working class residents working together to improve sidewalks and streets
Some sociologists see laws as _____
changing standards of right as wrong how violations are determined and what sanctions should be applied
The social psychologist Stanley Milgram used the term conformity to mean
going along with peers who have no authority to control our behavior
when a social principal suspends a student the principal is using or applying
formal social control
Which of the following would most sociologists consider deviant?
1. anything that violates accepted social norms
2. violating group norms whether the behavior is legal or illegal
According to _____ theorists socialization develops our self control so well that we do not need further pressure to obey social norms
control
When members of a culture violate the norms of that culture they are displaying _____ behavior
deviant
informal social control is used by people to casually enforce social
norms
Obedience can be best defined as
following the commands of a perceived authority
Every culture, subculture, and group has social _____ which are rules or expectations of acceptable behavior by its members
norms
All of the following are examples of informal social control except
sending someone to jail
Which of the following are agents authorized to carry out formal social control against those who violate social norms?
-police officers
-judges
Erving Goffman coined the term _____ to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of a certain social group
stigma
Spanking children by parents which is widely acceptable in the US and in many other countries is a type of
informal social control
Historically legal measures aimed at blocking discrimination based on race, religion and gender, age and sexual orientation were difficult to implement because many people tactically encourage the _______ of such measures
violation
Functionalists note that deviance creates both ___ and ____ consequences for social stability
positive and negative
The term differential justice can be defined as
1. the type of treatment that different races ethnic groups or social classes get from the criminal justice system
The term _____ emphasizes that one learns criminal behavior by interacting with others
cultural trasnmission
Which of the following statements represent social disorganization theory?
1. Social problems increase when neighborhoods have deteriorating buildings and declining populations
2. crime and deviance increase when the absence or breakdown of communal relationships occur
Examples of conformity and obedience
conformity- buying the latest pairs of shoes or adopting a trendy hairstyle
obedience- sitting in an assigned seat, paying taxes
When sociologist William Chambliss observed the saints and the roughnecks he concluded that
social class played an important role in the varying fortunes of the two groups
Which are the 5 basic modes of adaption to social norms according to Robert Merton's anomie theory of deviance?
1. conformity
2. inovation
3. ritualism
4. retreatism
5. rebellion
According to conflict theorists lawmaking is usually a
attempt by people in power to force their norms and values of others
According to feminist criminologists ,amy of the existing approaches to deviance and crime were developed with only
men in mind
What did Emile Durkheim claim as the most important function of punishing deviants?
It helps define acceptable behavior and thus contributes to social stability
Which of the following demonstrates how technology has affected standards of social behavior
1. Uncivil chat room behavior
2. inappropriate posts to online discussion boards
3. abusive voice mall
The impact of stigmas on a society is that they
devalue members of social groups
____ theory also called the societal reaction approach
labelling
The sociologist Howard Becker made the statement that "deviant behavior is the behavior that people so label" He associated with which approach deviance?
labeling thory
The term social control refers to the
techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
The term law may be defined as
government social control
The sociologist Edwin sutherland used the term ____ for when people are exposed to attitudes that are favorable to violation of the law
differential association
Racial profiling is considered to be
1. type of deviance itself
2. label that has been defined and applied by society to a certain group of people
the term differential association describes the process through which
exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of the rules
In his experimental study of obedience, the social psychologist Stanley Milgram found that
1. people saw themselves as merely doing their duty or following orders by an administering shocks to others
2. people administered shocks to others and tended to shift responsibility for their behavior to an authority figure
3. People were willing to obey authority figures and administer shocks to others
In Merton's Anomie Theory of Deviance
1. Conformity- accept approved social goals and the legitimate means of achieving them
2. Ritualism- reject approved social goals but accept legitimate means of achieving them
3. Rebellion- reject legitimate goals and means and replace them with their own new goals and objectives
4. Innovation- accept approves social goals but reject legitimate means of achieving them
5.Retreatism- reject approved goals and reject legitimate means of achieving them
Sociologist view law as a process of ___ standards of right and wrong and how, and to what degree violators should be punished
evolving
Emile Durkheim suggested that punishment within a culture help define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social
stability
According to the interactionist perspective the reason someone may or may not commit and act of deviance can be explained by
cultural transmission and routine activities
According to Edwin Sutherland's theory about cultural transmission and how it affects behavior in a person
learns criminal behavior by interacting with others
Match the appropriate perspective on deviance to the correct approach
functional- agents of social control and other powerful groups can decide who is deviant to serve themselves
Conflict- agents of social control and other powerful groups can decide who is deviant to serve themselves
Labeling- defining deviance emphasizes reactions to individual behavior
What social psychologist made a useful distinction between conformity and obedience?
Stanley Milgram
Who coined the term sigma to describe the labels of society uses to devalue members of a certain social group?
Erving Goffman
What is a Sanction?
penalties and rewards related to social norms
Social Norm
rules or expectations of acceptable behavior by its memebers
According to Travis Hirschi's control theory people conform to societies norms because of their
bond to family friends and peers
obedience
the commands of a perceived authority
labeling deviance
defined by the way society views certain individuals or groups
functionalist deviance
deviance serves important benefits for society
feminist deviance
gender plays a role in how deviance is defined and handled
conflict deviance
deviance is defined to suit the needs of those in power
Emile Durkheim used the term anomie to describe
the loss of direction felt by individuals in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
Feminist criminologist contend that
deviance and crime tend to flow from economic relationships
The debate over how human development is shaped is known as
nature vs nurture
Sigmund Frued
studied the relationships between sexual gratification and human development
which term was used by Erving Goffman to describe how individuals alter their appearance and behavior for the sake of particular audiences
impression management
Which of the following is true of the looking glass self?
1. it is subject to change
2. it may be an inaccurate perception of how others view us
The process of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions occupations and social relationships referred to as
anticipatory socialization
Mead was among the first sociologists to analyze the connections between
symbols and socialization
Symbolic interactions argue that reality is shaped by our
perceptions evaluations and definitions
A set of expectations for people who occupy a given position or status is called a
social role
The difficulty that arises when the same social position imposes conflicting demands and expectations
role strain