2 key processes in SLT explanation of gender role development
Acquisition of gender roles
Performance of gender roles
A,R,R,M stand for what key terms in the SLT model
Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation
Why is identification relevant to SLT?
We have to identify with someone in order to want to imitate their behaviour
What makes us more likely to identify with someone according to SLT?
If they are the same-sex as us
If we find them likeable and attractive
If they have power and status
What is vicarious reinforcement?
Indirect reinforcement of a behaviour. We see someone else performing a behaviour and it being rewarded (e.g. with praise, complements) and this makes us more likely to reproduce the behavior ourselves.
What is self-efficacy?
Self-efficacy refers to the extent to which we feel confident and able to reproduce a behavior we have seen modelled. If we have high self-efficacy we are confident that we can reproduce the behavior ourselves, if we have low self-efficacy we might admire a behavior we see modelled but not feel able to reproduce it ourselves.
Who might be a role model?
Anyone - can be someone who we have contact with in our family or group of friends. Or it may be someone who we admire from afar - e.g. on television or even in a cartoon.
Does SLT think gender identity is established and fixed in childhood?
No, gender development is a lifelong process and can change over time as we grow up and are exposed to different role models
Is the SLT approach linked to the nature or nurture side of the nature-nurture debate?
The nurture side - it says gender development occurs in the context of our environment and our experiences in life.
What is internalisation?
Internalisation occurs when we have reproduced a behaviour we have observed in a role model over time and it has become part of us - a habit rather than a conscious choice.
Does SLT think we are aware of who we choose to be our role models?
Yes, SLT says choosing and identifying with role models is a conscious process
Does SLT suggest that boys may model some of their behaviour on their mothers and girls model some of their behaviour on their fathers?
SLT suggests that we are more likely to identify with a role model of the same sex. In theory the same principles could be applied to imitating behaviours of opposite-sex role models.
What did Smith and Lloyd's 1978 research show?
That mothers differentiate in their play with girls and boys, even when only 6 months old.
Boys and girls initially given gender appropriate toys (e.g. a hammer, a doll) and boys encouraged to play more actively.
3 criticisms of Smith and Lloyd's 1978 research observing mothers playing with babies
Lacks construct validity (true measurement of what is aims to measure)
Lacks temporal validity (truth over time)
Small sample, only mothers - difficult to generalize
McGhee and Frueh (1980) research findings
People who watch lots of TV hold stronger gender stereotypes than people who view little.
Pfost and Fiore (1990) research findings
Women in traditionally masculine jobs were evaluated more negatively than men in traditionally feminine jobs.
Idle (1993) research findings
Fathers more negative when their sons play with 'feminine' toys than mothers
Eccles (1987) research findings
Teachers praise boys for being clever/achieving academically & girls for being tidy and doing as they're told.
Fagot (1985) research findings
Children were more critical of their male peers when they engaged in feminine activities than of girls engaged in masculine activities.