1. 1 Describe a range of causes of dementia syndrome There are several causes of dementia some of them are; a stroke, brain disease, MS, certain medications, shrinkage of the brain, too many opiates over a long period of time and severe alcoholism.

1. 2 Describe the types of memory impairment commonly experienced by individuals with dementia Dementia can cause the sufferer to experience loss of mental ability, loss of memory, a reduced understanding, and judgement. Dementia can also cause problems with language.

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1. 3 Explain the way that individual process information with reference to the abilities and limitations of individuals with dementia. In the beginning stages of Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, people have varying degrees of self-awareness. Some people are very aware of their limitations, making them feel sad for the way they are now and making them worried about the future.

In general, as the disease progresses, the level of self-awareness will most likely decline. In the earlier stages of the disease, the person you care for may deny or not understand that they have the disease. This can result in them not realizing their own limitations in their abilities, such as driving. As well, the person you care for may believe that they are completing tasks which are now being done for them. For example, they may think they have made the bed when someone else has. As their self-awareness declines, so will their ability to express their thoughts and feelings accurately.

1. 4 Explain how other factors can cause changes in an individual’s condition that may not be attributable to dementia Many people become forgetful as they become older. This is common and is often not due to dementia. There are also other disorders such as depression and an underactive thyroid that can cause memory problems. Even a simple water infection can cause an elderly person to become confused.

1.5 Explain why the abilities and needs of an individual with dementia may fluctuate. Needs and abilities of a person with dementia can fluctuate due to changes in the brain and changes in their health. Also a person with dementia has very poor or no short term memory at all, so when it comes to making descisions the answer may change quite alot because they have poor memory recall they may say yes one minute then say no to the exact same question because they cant remember what was asked before hand.

2.1 Describe the impact of early diagnosis and follow up to diagnosis A proper diagnosis of dementia is essential, in order to rule out other conditions that may have symptoms similar to dementia and that may be treatable, including depression, chest and urinary infections, severe constipation and brain tumours. Also to rule out other possible causes of confusion, such as poor sight or hearing; emotional changes and upsets, such as moving or bereavement; or the side-effects of certain drugs or combinations of drugs. Folllow up diagnosis can enable a patient to access advice, information and support

2. 2 Explain the importance of recording possible signs or symptoms of dementia in an individual in line with agreed ways of working Recording the signs or symptoms of dementia can help the sufferer to realize they have the condition and it will be very helpful to set up some activities to assist a person with dementia to understanding their situation, so it is very important to record every observation you notice in a person with dementia.

2.3 Explain the process of reporting possible signs of dementia within agreed ways of working. If an individual is displaying signs of dementia, this should be reported to the Care manager or a senior member of staff. Or speaking with a family member.

2. 4 Describe the possible impact of receiving a diagnosis of dementia on:

a) the individual The individual that has been diagnosed with dementia could suffer from confusion or shock. Could be frightened or disorientated. The individual may lose their future goals. The individual may have to retire early and may have financial implications.

b) their family and friends Usually it will be the family or friends of an individual who will first notice the signs of dementia. A diagnosis of dementia could be a long awaited explanation after weeks, months or years. It could affect the way the family will live, planning for the long term.

3. 1 Compare a person-centred and non person-centred approach to dementia care. Person centred care is about caring for the person, rather than the illness.

By the time a person with dementia needs care, they've been stripped of a lot of their dignity, are surrounded by strangers, and are very confused by the world around them, which can lead to problem behaviour. It's about learning what things the patient responds well to, and treating them like a human being Non person-centred approach to dementia care would be not getting to know the individual behind the illness, and treating them like a child. Not taking the time to learn how and what the individual responds to.

3.2 Describe a range of different techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the individual with dementia finding activities that compensate for lost abilities; promote self esteem; maintain residual skills and not involve new learning; provide an opportunity for enjoyment, pleasure and social contact; be culturally sensitive.

3. 3 Describe how myths and stereotypes related to dementia may affect the individual and their carers. Some people think that people with dementia are funny or violent etc and react to them in unkind ways. This can make the individual suffering with dementia feel badly about themselves and cause them to have low self esteem. Describe ways in which individuals and carers can be supported to overcome their fears. Researching and gaining as much information as possible can help the indiviual to overcome any fears they may have about their diagnosis. Having a good support network fo family and friends. If the carer has any fears about caring for an individual with dementia, training can support them and also the care manager can support them through the time they care for the individual.