A relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes
Learning outcomes
Verbal information
Intellectual skills
Motor skills
Cognitive strategies
Certain conditions must be present for learning to occur:
-Provide opportunities for trainees to practice and receive feedback
-Offer meaningful training content
-Identify any prerequisites that trainees need to complete the program successfully
-Allow trainees to learn through observation and experience and ensure that the work environment supports use of skills
Reinforcement Theory
Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors
Processes include:
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Reinforcement Theory Applied to training
-Identify what outcomes trainees consider to be positive or negative
-Link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviours
-Withhold or provide job-related, personal, and career-related benefits to learners who master program content
-Behavior modification is a training method that is primarily based on reinforcement theory
Social Learning Theory
Emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable
What does Social Learning Theory recognize?
The theory recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated
In the Social Learning Theory, how does learning occur?
-directly experiencing
-Observing Others
In Social Learning Theory, Self-efficacy can be increased by these methods...
-Verbal Persuasion
-Logical Verification
-Observation of others (modeling)
-Past accomplishments
Processes of Social Learning Theory
-Motor Reproduction (Physical Capability)
-Motivational Processes (Reinforcement)
Goal Theories
Assumes that behavior results from a person's conscious goals and intentions
How do goals influence a person's behavior?
-Directing energy and attention
-Sustaining effort over time
-Motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment
Goal Orientation
How you approach learning and achievement situations
Two Types of Goal Orientation
-Learning Orientation:
-Performance Orientation
Performance orientation:
-Focusing on task performance and how they compare to others
Goal Orientation will affect...
The amount of effort a trainee will expend in learning (performance vs. Learning)
Learning Orientation
Trying to increase ability or competence in a task
Need Theories
Helps to explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes
A deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point in time
What do Maslow's and Alderfer's need theories focus on?
-Physiological needs
-Relatedness needs
-Growth needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Difference between Maslow and Alderfer
Maslow: hierarchy exists
Alderfer: no hierarchy
Need theories 2
-Individual acts in a manner that will satisfy themselves
-Trainers should identify those needs
-Let employees choose training programs
Expectancy Theory
Behavior is based on three factors:
-Expectancies: Link between trying to perform a behavior and actually performing well
-Instrumentality: Belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome
-Valence: Value that a person places on an outcome
Expectancy Theory Equation
Effort=Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence(value)
Implications of Training for Expectancy Training
Learning is best facilitated when
-Trainees think they can do it
-Learning is linked to good outcomes (pay raise)
-Outcomes come eventually
Adult Learning Theory
-Adults need to know why they are learning something
-Need to be self-directed
-work-related experiences come into play
-They are problem-centered focused
-Motivated by both extrinsic and intrinsic motiavtion
Information Processing Theory
-internal processes that occur when training is happening
-Highlights external events influencing learning (Changes in stimulus) (enhancing perceptual features of the material) S
-So basically making things fancy/flashy/different might help retain info for trainees
Transfer of Training
-Applying what you learn in training to your job.
Trainee's ability to apply what they learned to work
Process of trainees continuing to use what they learned over time
Transfer of training is...
-more difficult when tasks are different from work environment
Closed skills
-things learned in training that are identical to tasks on the job
open skills
Linked to more general learning principles
The Learning Process
-Mental and Physical
*Working Storage
*Semantic Encoding
Mental state that the learner brings to the instructional process
perceiving the message and processing it
Working Storage
rehearsal/repetition info
Semantic Encoding
Actual coding process of incoming messages
Learning Strategies
Four stages of the learning cycle:
-Concrete experience
-Reflective Observation
-Abstract Conceptualization
-Active experimentation
training context
the training environment
-trainees need to continue to practice even if they can already do it
Error MGMT training
Giving trainees opportunities to make errors and how to learn from them
Massed practice
-individuals practice a task continuously, without resting
spaced practice
rest intervals implemented (this is better)
Overall task complexity
how hard a task is
Mental requirements
Degree to which the task requires you to be smart
Physical requirements
How strong do you need to be?/physically able
Whole Practice
All tasks/objectives should be practiced at the same time
Part Practice
-An objective should be practiced individually
Making tasks so automatic that you dont even have to think about doing them
Communities of practice
Groups of employees who work together, learn from each other etc
Person's attempt to control certain aspects of decision making and behavior
-When someone starts to result to their old way of habit instead of the training principles
Climate for transfer
Trainees' perceptions of charac. of the work environment that facilitate or inhibit the use of trained skills or behavior
Internal conditions
processes within the learner that must be present for earning to occur
External conditions
processes in the learning environment that facilitate learning