What is the most frequently used method of training?
Instructor-led classroom, 67%
What are traditional training methods?
Methods that do not require new technology (i.e. Internet) for delivery
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What are synchronous and asynchronous instruction?
Synchronous = real-time, asynchronous = time-delayed
Into what three broad categories are traditional training methods organized?
Hands-on methods, presentation methods, and group building methods
Presentation methods
Methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information (facts, process, problem-solving methods)
Kinds of presentation methods
Lectures, audiovisual techniques, instructor-led classroom
Lecture
Trainers communicate through spoken words what they want the trainees to learn
Advantages of lecture
One of the least expensive, least time-consuming ways to present large amounts of information efficiently in an organized way; easily used with large groups of trainees
Disadvantages of lecture
Tend to lack participant involvement, feedback, and meaningful connection to the work environment; inhibits learning and transfer of training; appeals to few senses because trainees focus primarily on hearing information
Variations of the lecture method
Standard lecture, team teaching, guest speakers, panels, student presentations
Audiovisual instruction
Includes overheads, slides, and video
How is video usually used?
Rarely used alone; used in conjunction with lecture to show real-life experiences and examples
Advantages of using video in training
Trainers can review, slow down, or speed up the lesson (customization); trainees can watch the video multiple times; trainees can be exposed to equipment, problems, and events that cannot be easily demonstrated; allows trainees to see and hear their own performance without interpretation of the trainer; requires minimal knowledge of technology/equipment
Disadvantage of video
Creative approach used (too much content, poor dialogue, overuse of humor/music, confusing drama)
Hands-on methods
Training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning
Types of hands-on methods
On-the-job training (OTJ), simulations, case studies, business games, role plays, behavior modeling
For what are hands-on methods ideal?
Developing specific skills, understanding how skills and behaviors can be transferred to the job, experiencing all aspects of completing a task, or dealing with interpersonal issues that arise on the job
On-the-job training (OTJ)
New or inexperienced employees learning in the work setting and during work by observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior
Why is OTJ considered informal, and what can happen if OJT is too informal?
Because it does not necessarily occur as part of a training program and because managers, peers, or mentors serve as trainers; learning will not occur if OTJ is too informal
Advantages of OTJ
Can be customized to experiences and abilities of trainees; training is immediately applicable to the job because OTJ occurs on the job; companies save costs related to bringing trainees to a central location; OTJ can be offered at any time; OTJ uses actual job tasks and occurs at work; needs less investment in time or money
Disadvantages of OTJ
Managers and peers may pass on bad habits; unstructured OTJ = poorly trained employees
How is successful OTJ structured?
Based on the principles of social learning theory (credible trainer, model of behavior, communication of key behaviors, practice, feedback, reinforcement)
Types of OTJ training
Self-directed learning, apprenticeship
Self-directed learning
Employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning -- including when it is conducted and who will be involved
Effectiveness of self-directed learning is based on ______________.
an employee's motivation to learn
Disadvantages of self-directed learning
Results in higher development costs; development time is longer than with other types of training programs; trainees must be willing to learn on their own and feel comfortable doing so
Advantages of self-directed learning
Allows trainees to learn at their own pace and receive feedback; requires fewer trainers, reduces cost, and makes multiple-site training more realistic; provides consistent training content; makes it easier for shift employees to gain access to training material
Apprenticeship
Work-study training method with both on-the-job and classroom training
Qualifications for registered apprentice
Complete 144 hours of classroom instruction and 2,000 hours (one year) on-the-job experience
In which areas are most apprenticeship programs?
Skilled trades like plumbing, carpentry, electrical work, and pipe fitting
Advantage of apprenticeship programs
Learners can earn pay while they learn; involve learning why and how a task in performed through classroom instruction and local schools; usually result in full-time employment for trainees
Disadvantages of apprenticeship programs
Development costs and time commitment; limited access for minorities and women; no guarantee of job availability after program completion; employers may be reluctant to hire workers from apprenticeship programs (well trained in one craft)
Simulation
Represents a real-life situation, with trainees' decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen if they were on the job
Simulations are used to teach which skills?
Production and process skills; management and interpersonal skills
Key aspects of simulators
Need to have elements identical to those found in the work environment; simulator needs to respond exactly like the equipment would under the conditions and response given by the trainee
Case study
Description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation
Assumption of the case study approach
Employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge/skills if they learn through the process of discovery
Case studies develop which skills?
Higher order intellectual skills like analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
Process for case development
Identify a story, gather information, prepare a story outline, decide on administrative issues, prepare case materials
Advantage/disadvantage of preexisting cases
They are already developed/the case may not actually relate to the work situation or problem that the trainee will encounter
Business games
Require trainees to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions
Types of decisions that participants make
Include all aspects of management practice: labor relations, ethics, marketing, finance
Characteristics of games
Game involves a contest; game is designed to demonstrate an understanding of or application of a knowledge, skill, or behavior; trainees can estimate consequence of each alternative course of action; rules limit participant behavior
How are companies teaching employees finance?
Board games like Monopoly; trainees guide their companies through a series of decisions challenged by various obstacles
Role plays
Trainees act out characters assigned to them
Role plays vs. simulations (information, responses, outcomes)
Role plays: provide limited information regarding the situation/ simulation: provide quite detailed information; role plays: focus on interpersonal responses/simulation: focus on physical responses; role play: outcomes depend on emotional reactions of other trainees/simulation: outcomes depend on model of reality
Trainer activity before, during, and after role play
Before: explain purpose of activity, roles, and time; during: monitor time, intensity, and focus of group's attention; after: debrief
Behavior modeling
Presents trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate and provides trainees with the opportunity to practice the key behaviors