John Tomlinson, (1999), Globalisation & Culture Blackwell, Oxford: Tomlinson's book analyses the phenomenon of globalisation, focusing on the area of cultural change exploring debates around social and cultural modernity, stating evidence of a pattern suggesting the breakdown of links between the experience of culture and place. This breakdown' is occurring at different rates and times in different spaces, but Tomlinson believes it is evident on a global scale. The authors discuss whether cultural boundaries are breaking down, and cultures are merging, particularly in relation to the media and communications technologies, culmination in a discussion of the possibility of a cosmopolitan planet..
Mike Featherstone, (1990), Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization & Modernity, Sage, London: Social Scientists from all around the world have contributed to this book, giving it a broad viewpoint. The writers have come together to assess whether the globalisation of culture is taking place, enquiring whether globalisation is promoting cultural erosion and assimilation resulting in a new homogenized culture, with relation to a new system of power relations e.g. global economics, international laws and United Nations agreements. The publication questions whether globalisation will produce higher acceptance and tolerance levels between societies, or whether a backlash from fundamentalist and nationalist movements will occur.
Robertson,R, (1992), Social Theory and Global Culture, Sage, London: Robertson begins his book by percieving globalisation as a problem, discussing the public's changing conceptions of a world which is rapidly `shrinking', and the potential social, political and economis repercussions of this, before continuing to illustrate the ways in which culture has become a globally contested issue e.g. the repidly changing process "...yields new actors and `third cultures'- such as transnationsl movements and international organisations- that are orientated negatively or positively, to a global-human circumstance" p61. Robertson then argues "Cultural pluralism is itself a constitutive part the contemporary global circumstance " (blurb) finishing the book with a search for fundamentals' in the global perspective.
The above texts are relevant to the part of my project which investigates the impact of traveler's on the globalisation process.
Urry,J, (1990) The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary Society, Sage, London: Urry considers the way in which tourists view the phenomenon they encounter at sites of interest using what he has termed the tourist gaze'. Urry believes there are specific ways in which this can be analysed, including the use of historical, social, cultural, economic and visual modes of analysis. The issues surrounding international tourism are discussed in the context of Post Modernism, e.g. "changing patterns of tourism- the attraction of the rural; urban and cultural tourism; industrial and heratage tourism.", along with it's similarities and links to other contemporary social practices.
Wahab,S & Cooper,C, (2001), Tourism in the Age of Globailsation, Routlege, London: Wahab & Cooper firstly examine the current trends in globalisation, including economic, terretorial and social implications to provide an overview of this process. The globalisation of tourism is then introduced, with discussions of who' the tourist actually is, what theri demands/expectations are, and how the industry responds to these demands in the age of globalisation.
The manner in which travel companies compete, interact and deal with factors such as safety and quality in the current climate is examined, plus issues of sustainable development, environment, politics and cultural identity. The editore believe globalisation may encourage heightened competition between tourist destinations worldwide. The two books mentioned above are relevent to the aspect of my research which investigates whether backpacking is a different form of travel-with a community' which holds different norms and values to the traditional package tourist.
Marshall, J. (2003), Women and Strangers: Issues of Marginalisation in Seasonal Tourism, Tourism Geographies, Vol 3 (2), pp 165-186: Marshall examines the effects of seasonal tourism on the island of Grand Maran, New Brunswick, although it may be possible to extrapolate her findings. Historical, geographical and political information put the report into context and the manner in which social structures relationships and institutions are affected with reference to the marginalisation of women and foreigners. The way this marginalisation negatively affects the ability of the local social group to steer it's own future are examined. This supports my case for examining female travellers views as a frequently marginalised and under represented part of society.
The focus of this project however is Ulf Hanners 1990 paper discussed in John Tomlinson's 1999 Globalisation & Culture, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. This text discusses exactly what it is that defines a traveller, what makes a person become a traveller, and ways in which backpackers may be considerd to be different to other travellers. A in-depth discussion of Hannrs 1990 research is included. I intend to investigate whether backpackers exist as a cosmopolitan community', as Ulf Hanners contemplated.
Hanner's stated that to be truly cosmopolitan one must possess a "...cultural disposition which is not limited to the immediate locality, but which recognises global belonging, involvement and responsibility and can integrate these broader concerns into everyday life practices." The Oxford English Dictionary defines this as a "sense of being free from national limitations and prejudices" Questionnaires have been used to establish whether this is true for the majority of travellers encountered.
Interest was generated by the fact Hanners stated the majority of travellers are not cosmopolitan, but in search of 'home plus', e.g. in the case of transnational workers they seek 'home plus better wages', or package holidaymakers seek 'home plus sunshine'. I do not believe backpackers seek 'home plus' as they usually sleep in cheap (often grotty) hostels. It may be possible that they seek 'home plus culture & new experiences' however, and this shall be investigated.
Tomlinson suggests that it is a "privilege of Western advanced cultures to be globe trotters". While it is admittedly easier for westerners to travel due to their favourable exchange rates, it may not simply be the case that to be a cosmopolitan is a western culturally elitist phenomenon. All travellers may not be financially secure, or from western countries.
The fact that many females are travelling both alone and in groups is also ignored by Hanners who refers to the cosmopolitan as "he". Societies traditional view of the worldly male and the home making female leaves no room for women to be cosmopolitan, despite the fact women are also thought to be more in touch with the planet, be more caring and have better language aptitudes/communication skills. To challenge this view least 50% women were interviewed to get as good a representation of their views as possible.
The above text's are only a fraction of those studied so far, see bibliography for further detail's. I have found an abundance of litereture surrounding the tiopics of travel, tourism and globalisation. I have read a variety of different publications from an array off academic genres, including Geography (physical, new cultural and human), sociology,and economics.
I feel I have adopted a Marxist-Feminist standpoint and hve used questionnaires as my main method of gathering information, as I consider it the best way to accumilate data from a large varitey ofstrangers. In order to study the backpacking community an investigation into lifestyle, norms, values and attitudes is necessairy in order to decide whether a true community exists. Tomlinson (1999) p21 states "(The backpacker can)...end up in any part of the world and be in the same relation of familiarity and strangeness to the local culture...", and also "...feel particually adjusteed anywhere..." Iyer (1997) This confirms my claim that backpackers form a transnstional community.
The role of any existing community in the globalisation process will then be investigated. Hanners (1990) believes cosmopolitains (in this case backpackers) "...first of all (have) an orientation- a willingness to engage with the other." I seek to discover whether primerily western travellers are venturing to areas not frequented by package tourists and whethe they adopt aspects of the culture found there, spread their own culture, or whether a mutual culural exchange occurs between social groups. I may contact some questionnaire recipients for further details if necessairy after analysis has been completed.