The Hartford Convention (December 15, 1814-January 5, 1814)- a series of meetings in the United States to illustrate New England’s opposition to the War of 1812, and where secessionist sentiments were discussed.
2. The Tariff of 1816 – the government’s act of raising by 20 percent the average tax rates which was considered as a a protectionist measure aimed at guarding New England’s struggling manufacturing industry against the influx of foreign imports-mostly British goods dumped in the market after the war.
3. Bank of the United States – a bank created through a charter made by the United Sates Congress on February 25, 1791 to manage the finances and Assets of the newly formed government of the United States.
4. The Tariff of Abominations (Tariff of 1828) – also a protectionist tariff aimed at protecting industries in the northern United States, which operates thru the imposition of 62% tax on 92% of all imported goods, thereby making European products costlier.
5. Universal manhood suffrage - a form of voting rights which allowed all adult males within the United States to vote regardless of ethnicity, property, religion, income or status.
6. John Quincy Adams - born in 1767 in Braintree, Massachusetts and lived to become the sixth President of the United States(1825-1829) and the first President who was the son of a President.
7. Monroe Doctrine (1823) – the proclamation of President James Monroe on December 2, 1823, which enunciated the concepts of non-intervention, non-colonization as well as the apparent break of the United States from the realm of Europe.
Internal Improvements – the setting up of public works such as bridges, river navigations, canals, turnpikes and railroads after the War of 1812 to successfully facilitate settlements and improve trade and commerce.
9. Nicholas Biddle – a famous lawyer from Philadelphia who was the President of the Bank of the United States before Andrew Jackson decided to dissolve it.
10. The Missouri Compromise – the conditions and measures passed by the United States Congress upon Missouri Territory’s application for statehood in 1819, which sought to prohibit the further growth of slavery in Misouri.
11. Martin Van Buren – a crafty lawyer-politician who, before becoming the eight President of the United States, served as President Jackson’s Secretary of State and was known to be Jackson’s most trusted and loyal adviser.
12. A Corrupt Bargain – refers to the event where a tie between John Quincy Adams and rival Andrew Jackson in the 1824 Presidential elections was resolved by the House of Representatives, under the leadership of Henry Clay wherein the House elected Adams. Clay was later appointed Secretary of State by President Adams.
13. John C. Calhoun - a leading statesman from the south who served as Vice President to both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
14. Daniel Webster – a statesman, orator, lawyer and champion of American nationalism born on January 18, 1782, who opposed the War of 1812 because of the setbacks it caused to New England’s shipping trade.
15. Pocket Veto – the president’s prerogative of indirectly rejecting a bill by his failure to act (sign) on it within the time prescribed by law.
16. Trail of Tears – the result of the Treaty of New Echota enforced under the Indian removal Act of 1830 during the term of President Van Buren, who ordered the forced resettlement of Cherokee Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi River.
17. The American System –a structure proposed after the War of 1812 which involved internal improvement, passage of protectionist tariffs, establishment of national defense mechanism and creation of a national bank to create and maintain a robust economic structure and boost American nationalism.
18. Nullification - a principle based on the proposition, that the federal government cannot exercise powers not conferred to it by the constitution since the Union was just a creation of the voluntary organization of the states. Under this principle the states has the inherent right to pronounce null and void any federal law they believe to be.