The persistence of learning over time
The process of encoding refers to
getting information into memory
The process of getting information out of memory is called
A modern information-proccessing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks
Your consciously activated but limited capacity memory
Automatic processing occurs without
conscious awareness
The conscious repetition of information to maintain it in memory
Ebbinghaus's use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that
the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
Th tendency to immediately recall the first and last times in a list better than the middle items is known as the
serial position effect.
Encoding meaning
Our preconceived ideas contribute to our ability to process new information best illustrates the importance of
meaning in encoding
Relating to life experiences to remember information; This strategy is an effective memory aid because it facilitates
meaningful encoding
More likely to remember words that you can picture like "apple" than "process" because of the process of
A mnemonic device is a
memory aid
Chess master can recall the exact position of most pieces after a brief glance at the game board. This ability is bestsellers explained in terms of
When Sperling visually displayed three rows of three letter each for only one-twentieth of a second, research participants
had momentary photographic memory of all nine letters.
Learning involves a
relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
The process of learning associations
Classical Conditioning
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
learning by association.
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by
Who believed that he could teach anybody to excel in any field if he could begin conditioning early enough
John B. Watson
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called
neutral stimulus
The unconditioned stimulus in Pavlov's experiments was
the presentation of food in the dogs mouths
A tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is
a conditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus becomes a ________ after it reliably signals the impending occurrence of the ________
Conditioned Stimulus; Unconditioned stimulus
Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second conditioned stimulus. This illustrates
higher-order conditioning
Occurs when a Conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with a unconditioned stimulus
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Spontaneous recovery
Dogs conditioned to salivate when rubbed on their front paws also began to salivate when other parts of their bodies were rubbed
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles.
Compared with non-abused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse who a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face.
The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called
The ______ ______ would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on an organism's expectation that an unconditioned stimulus will follow a conditioned stimulus.
cognitive perspective
The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can swerve as a conditioned stimulus was challenged by
Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion rats.
Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears may be produced through
classical conditioning
An organism learns association between events it does not control during the process of
classical conditioning
voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences are
operant behaviors
cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed.
The law of effect.
Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procure known as
You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to tech a dog to
retrieve sticks and balls
Demonstration of appreciation for very good answers to questions and students stop participating. Should use
Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is
positive reinforcer.
positive reinforcers __________ the rate of operant responding , and negative reinforcers ______ the rate of operant responding
Increase; increase
A Stimulus that acquires reinforcing by association with a primary reinforcer is called a
conditioned reinforcer.
A response is learned most ________ and most resistant to ________ if it is acquired under conditions of continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement.
rapidly; extinction
The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates
partial reinforcements
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a
specified number of responses have been made.
Asking women for dates is most likely to reinforce on a
variable-ratio schedule
Revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
negative punishment
A child who is pushed for swearing at home but not for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of
Th fat that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of
latent learning
Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors.
Instinctive drift
which of the following is LEAST likely tone considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software?
Respondent Behavior
The study of respondent behavior is to __________ as the study of operant behavior is to ___________
Pavlov; Skinner
A learned association between two stimuli is central to
classical conditioning
Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates
observational learning.
Jeremy wear his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does.
Mirror neurons provide a biological basis for
observational learning
Children are helped by ________ to develop a theory of mind.
Mirror neurons
The reduced imitative yawning displayed by Peo;e with autism is mist directly related to their recused levels of
mirror neuron activity.
Who highlighted the importance of observational leaning?
Preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflatable BOBO doll that an adult had just beaten.
Observational learning
Socially responsive toddler who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschooler with a strong internalized conscience.
Observational Learning
Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing television violence in which an attractive person commits
justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm
Two factors that contribute to the violence-viewing effect
desensitization and imitation
The address for obtaining ticket to a popular quiz show is shown, but the image disappears before Sam has a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise he has retained a momentary mental image of the 5 digit zip code.
Iconic memory
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Echoic memory
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as
12 seconds
Type of memory that has an essentially unlimited capacity
long-term memory
Karl Ashley trained rats to solve a maze and the removed pieces of their cortexes. Storage of their maze memories has not ___________ to specific regions of the ________
restricted; cortex
One effect of ____________-______ _________ is that a receiving neuron's receptor sites are increased.
long term potentiation
Stress hormones promote stronger memories by
increasing the availability of glucose.
The loss of memory is called
Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates
implicit memory
The hippocampus plays a critical role in
explicit memory
Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to __________ memory
implicit; explicit
Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are called
retrieval cues
After his last drinking spree, John had a half-empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again.
State-dependent memory
Mood-congruent memory refers to the effector emotional states on the process of
A person who has trouble forgetting information, such as the Russian memory whiz S, often seems to have a limited capacity for
abstract learning
The inability to recall what letters accompany the number 5 on your telephone is most likely due to
encoding failure
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially
rapid and subsequently slows down
The title of a song is on the tip of Sara's tongue, but she cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriters name. Sara's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by
retrieval failure
Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
proactive interference
Arnold so easily remembers his new girlfriend's telephone number, but finds it difficult to recall his old girlfriends number. This difficulty illustrates
retroactive interference
Old information can sometimes facilitate our learning of new information as when knowing Spanish can help us learn Italian.
Positive transfer
The findings that people who sleep after learning a list of nonsense syllables forget less than people who stay awake provide evidence that forgetting may involve
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money thanks actually the case.
Source amnesia
Michael Ross and his colleagues observed that people exposed to very convincing arguments about the value of frequent toothbrushing tended to
exaggerate how frequently they had brushed their teeth in the past
Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involves
retrieval failure
Among contemporary memory researches, increasing numbers think that _________ rarely occurs
Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled
broken glass at the scene of the accident
Research on memory construction indicates that
false memories often feel as real as true memories
The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics of
memory construction
Visualizing an object and actually seeing that object activate similar brain areas. This most clearly contributes to
imagination inflation
By incorporating errors originating from a hypnotist's leading questions, "hypnotically refreshed" memories often illustrate
the misinformation effect
When children are interviewed about their recollections of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially credible if involved adults have ______ discussed the issue with them prior to the interviews
Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of
retrieval cues