The four curriculum orientations presented in Van Brummelen's text “Steppingstones to Curriculum” are Christian, traditionalism, process and experimentalism. No matter what the perceived outcome, each theory has the same basic goal, to educate the learner and them know more at the end of the lesson, than at the beginning.
Each view except for experimentalism is also linked together by the concept that “They set direction in life, giving it meaning and purpose (2002. 7) Looking at the other three orientations more in depth, another common thread is that in some manner, each links back the theory of God’s creation and his desire to treat mankind in a responsible fashion that provides us with guidelines. To have meaning and purpose it is essential that we have responsible stewardship, unselfish love and value the dignity and worth of others. Responsible teaching as written by Stephen Holtrop in Van Brummelen's text “views each person as unique” (2002. 8) This can be accomplished in both the Christian and the secular classroom teaching environments by a “well-tuned’ educator.
Van Brummelen discusses the social aspects of curriculum based on biblical views. When teaching to this type of curriculum each student is regarded in their individual ability to learn and the educator takes great strides in finding information to challenge the student. Responsible teaching takes into account that each student is unique with their own special set of qualities.
Responsible teaching also teaches the students to think critically and understand that they have a responsibly to the world. “It involves careful planning of ways to engage students’ minds and inspire their action in real issues. (Holtrop in Van Brummelen 2002, 38) Responsible teaching strives to teach students to become critical thinkers. In our current curriculum model, students are not being taught as self- thinkers, with thinking that leads to a higher order of educational commitment on behalf of the individual leaner.
Teaching in either a Christian or a secular setting incorporates the trait of respect for others. We are required to incorporate character education lessons into our lesson plans, focusing on such concepts as trustworthiness, kindness, honesty, cooperation, self-responsibility. In Van Brummelen’s text, he discusses some biblically based values, in which he lists some of the social aspects of teaching.