Every premature thing goes through different phases of development, as far as humans are concerned, they have inherited earth more than four thousand years ago and have undergone various phases of development. Homo Sapiens which clearly resemble us, can be known as our ancestors disintegrated from Africa and allocated different parts of the earth and this time can be recalled as stone age because people at this time were not coherent with how to use any other things except for stone, bones and wood as they used such materials to make weapons and tools.
Stone Age has been divided into parts such as Paleolithic which is Old Stone Age and Neolithic is new stone age; In the Paleolithic age, people were basically nomads and were hunter gatherers as they lived in groups and moved from place to place in search of food and water where men would do the hunting and women and the young would forged for plants close to camp and provided the group with nourishment and we can confirm the fact of hierarchy in this period by the fact that their graves shows that hierarchy emerged in Paleolithic times as some graves contains weapons, tools, animal figures, ivory bears and seashells along with the corpses which indicated that some people had higher status then the others.
Hierarchy emerged as men acquired prestige from bringing back meat from big hunts and from fighting in wars and women earned the same status from experience and longevity in age when illness killed most people before age thirty. Climate and Geography played a very important role in settlement of the Paleolithic period, the weather increased the amount of wild grains people could gather in the foothills of the fertile cresecent.
The Paleolithic hunter gatherers settled where the wild grains grew and where animals gazed. After a period of time as people became to master new skills such as agriculture and domesticating animals, this gave rise to Neolithic age which was the Fertile Crescent. After a long trial and error period , people in fertile crescent accomplished agriculture by sowing seeds from wild grains to produce harvest year after year, since women had more experience gathering plants, they played the major role in developing farming as men mostly did all the hunting. This farming package had revolutionary effect as it produced permanent settlement and food surpluses.
The DNA evidence from ancient bones and modern populations shows that by 4000BCE, immigrants and traders from fertile crescent had helped spread knowledge of agriculture and domestication as far as the European shores of the Atlantic ocean. The Neolithic revolution had an increase in hierarchy because the person who produced most successful crops and craftsmanship gained more power and wealth therefore being socially higher than another; they then used their wealth to hire more people to work for them accomplishing them to earn more wealth. This led to the emergence of cities in Mesopotamia which played an important role into building city states and further enhancing the empire and followed by a country of Egypt.