1. A social category of people who share a common culture (i.e., language, national background or religion) is referred to as a(n) _____.

a. minority group
b. dominant group
c. racial group
d. ethnic group

d. ethnic group
2. In order for a group to be considered an ethnic group they must

a. look different than the members of other ethnic groups.
b. speak the same language as other members of the group.
c. share an identity they see as different from that of others on society.
d. have a shared system of norms and values.

c. share an identity they see as different from that of others on society.
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3. Racial groups are defined by:

a. Religious beliefs.
b. The cultural and social norms within a society.
c. Biological characteristics.
d. How the groups have been treated historically.

d. How the groups have been treated historically
4. Sociologists refer to the process by which something or someone is perceived as having racial characteristics as _____.

a. racialization
b. racial formation
c. ethnogeneration
d. ethnicity identification

a. racialization
5. What is the most important factor for determining the racial categories within any society?

a. The beliefs and interests of the most powerful group(s) in society.
b. The amount of difference in ancestry or "blood" that different groups have.
c. The degree to which members of different groups differ from each other biologically. d. The language that each group speaks.

a. The beliefs and interests of the most powerful group(s) in society.
6. Which of the following does not apply to all minority groups?

a. possessing characteristics generally considered different from the dominant group
b. being smaller in number than the dominant group
c. sharing a sense of group identity
d. experiencing prejudice and discrimination in society

b. being smaller in number than the dominant group
7. Which of these statements regarding the judgments people make about others is false?

a. People make quick assessments and judgments about others in order to save time.
b. The judgments people make enable them to process a great deal of information very quickly.
c. Quickly categorizing the people one meets is a very common and widespread practice.
d. Most of the time the quick judgments that people make are remarkably comprehensive and accurate.

d. Most of the time the quick judgments that people make are remarkably comprehensive and accurate.
8. The _____ principle states that we categorize people on the basis of what appears initially prominent and obvious about them.

a. stereotypic
b. salience
c. prejudice
d. perception

b. salience
9. The principle of ______ holds that stereotypes, especially negative ones, are often applied interchangeable from one group to another.

a. cultural relativism
b. stereotype interchangeability
c. selective identity
d. universal applicability

b. stereotype interchangeability
10. Prejudice is
a. always positive.
b. usually negative.
c. neither positive nor negative.
d. equally positive and negative.
b. usually negative
11. A prejudiced person is likely to have:

a. have positive attitudes towards members of an in-group and positive attitudes toward members of an out-group.
b. have positive attitudes towards members of an in-group and negative attitudes toward members of an out-group.
c. have negative attitudes towards members of an in-group and positive attitudes toward members of an out-group.
d. have negative attitudes towards members of an in-group and negative attitudes toward members of an out-group.

b. have positive attitudes towards members of an in-group and negative attitudes toward members of an out-group.
12. How do strongly prejudiced people end up that way?

a. Some people seem to just naturally have negative feelings about others who are not like them.
b. Children are rarely prejudiced until they enter school and are influenced into prejudice by their peers.
c. Socialization into prejudiced attitudes occurs in the family, as well as through the media and peers.
d. Deviant individuals are more likely to be prejudiced than conforming individuals.

c. Socialization into prejudiced attitudes occurs in the family, as well as through the media and peers.
13. Research on socialization into prejudiced attitudes indicates that

a. children tend to be free of prejudice until around the ages of 9 or 10 years old.
b. there is a close correlation between the racial and ethnic attitudes of parents and those of their children.
c. children and young adults who believe they can think for themselves are able to avoid taking on their parents racial or other prejudices.
d. most people today are unaffected by parental prejudices since the media has become so important.

b. there is a close correlation between the racial and ethnic attitudes of parents and those of their children
14. Measurements of economic inequality indicate that

a. the income gap between Blacks and Whites has closed in recent years.
b. net worth among all groups is now relatively equal.
c. the poverty rate is higher for Blacks and Hispanics than it is for Whites and Asians.
d. poverty among members of racial minority groups has been increasing since the 1960s.

c. the poverty rate is higher for Blacks and Hispanics than it is for Whites and Asians.
15. Sociologists find that racism

a. is the perception and treatment of members of a racial group as inferior.
b. is limited to individual behavior.
c. involves actions, not attitudes.
d. has practically disappeared in the U.S. since Barack Obama was elected president

a. is the perception and treatment of members of a racial group as inferior
16. Blaming Blacks for economic inequality and resistance to policies that might alleviate racial oppression is considered ______.

a. traditional racism
b. aversive racism
c. color-blind racism
d. symbolic or laissez-faire racism

d. symbolic or laissez-faire racism
17. Which of the following is the best example of institutional discrimination?

a. Airport security procedures that specify people who appear to be Middle Eastern should be scrutinized more closely than others.
b. A waiter refusing to serve a Black man who sits in his section.
c. Dr. Jones, a professor, claiming she doesn't even notice the color of her students' skin.
d. A landlord who will never rent to anyone who has dark skin

a. Airport security procedures that specify people who appear to be Middle Eastern should be scrutinized more closely than others.
18. _____ is the psychological theory that argues that members of the dominant group vent their frustrations and aggressions toward minority groups instead of the real source of their frustration.

a. Contact theory
b. Scapegoat theory
c. Pluralist frustration theory
d. Functionalist theory

b. Scapegoat theory
19. The assimilation perspective argues that in order to be full members of society members of minority groups must adopt as many aspects of the dominant culture as possible. This perspective pertains to which type of sociological theory?
a. conflict theory
b. functionalist theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. authoritarian personality
b.functionalist theory
20. Contact theory argues that under certain conditions interactions between Whites and members of minority groups will reduce prejudice within both groups. This theory is a type of _____ theory.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interactionist
d. social exchange

symbolic interactionist
21. Contact theory argues that interaction between Whites and minorities will reduce prejudice on the part of both groups if all of the following conditions are met, except:

a. the parties interact on equal ground.
b. the contact is sustained.
c. social norms favoring equality are agreed upon by the participants.
d. all parties agree to work to reduce the prejudice.

d. all parties agree to work to reduce the prejudice.
22. In the debate over whether class or race are more important as the source of inequality, sociologist William Julius Wilson argues that

a. the disadvantaged status of minority groups is more a matter of race than class.
b. ignoring skin color and cultural differences is the only way to solve the country's problems of racism.
c. changes in the economic structure are more important than race in shaping the life chances of different groups.
d. the social construction of race is a myth.

c. changes in the economic structure are more important than race in shaping the life chances of different groups
23. The view that race intersects with class to shape one's experience in the social structure is a perspective related to _____.

a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. social exchange theory

b. conflict theory
24. The perspective that argues that minority groups' life chances result from the opportunities formed by the interactions of class, race, and gender is called _____.

a. functionalism
b. the intersection perspective
c. social interactionism
d. social exchange theory

b. the intersection perspective
25. _____ believe that social change results from organized social movements and other forms of resistance to oppression.

a. Functionalists
b. Conflict theorists
c. Symbolic interactionists
d. Social exchange theorists

b. Conflict theorists
26. Anti-Semitism is the term for

a. hatred of people of other races.
b. fear and hatred of foreigners.
c. hatred of Jewish people.
d. hatred of Arab people.

c. hatred of Jewish people
27. Persons with the _____ perspective believe that to overcome adversity and oppression, the minority person needs to imitate the dominant White culture as much as possible.

a. assimilation
b. acculturalist
c. cultural pluralism
d. blending

a. assimilation
28. Which of these is not a criticism of the assimilation model?

a. It does not consider the amount of time that it may take some groups to assimilate.
b. It fails to recognize that the histories of Blacks and Whites in this country have been very different and have long-lasting effect.
c. It ignores the fact that immigrants entering the U.S. at different times have faced very different economic conditions and demands for labor.
d. It does not account for language barriers between groups.

d. It does not account for language barriers between groups
29. Which of these statements about segregation in the U.S. is true?

a. De jure segregation still exists.
b. De facto segregation still exists.
c. There is very little segregation in the U.S. today.
d. Segregation is more vital today than in the past.

b. De facto segregation still exists
30. The Civil Rights Movement

a. was influenced by the philosophy of Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi.
b. was the first movement working for the rights of African Americans in the U.S.
c. was originally motivated by the establishment of Affirmative Action legislation. d. was large but ineffective.

a. was influenced by the philosophy of Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi.
31. Evidence that gender is socially constructed includes

a. the different gender roles found in different countries.
b. the lack of gender variability generally.
c. studies that find more difference within a gender than between genders on most traits.
d. the common gender expectations across all social classes.

a. the different gender roles found in different countries
32. Research on biological determinism has found that

a. a strong correlation exists between aggressive behavior and testosterone levels.
b. changes in testosterone levels predict changes in levels of men's aggression.
c. there are minimal differences in the levels of sex hormones between boys and girls in early childhood.
d. children born with mixed biological sex characteristics are more aggressive than other children.

c. there are minimal differences in the levels of sex hormones between boys and girls in early childhood.
33. The condition of having mixed biological sex characteristics is called _____.

a. intersexed
b. fetal sex differentiation
c. transgenderation
d. bisexual variation

a. intersexed
34. The process of learning the expectations for behavior associated with each sex is called _____.

a. sexual differentiation
b. gender socialization
c. gender polarization
d. sexual norm internalization

b. gender socialization
35. One's definition of oneself as a woman or a man is termed one's _____.

a. gender identity
b. sexuality
c. sexual identity
d. gender attribution

a. gender identity
36. Gender identity has a strong impact on how one feels about one's appearance. Studies of gender identity and body image have found that

a. among preschool children, girls have lower self-concept related to body image than boys do.
b. in early adolescence boys compare their bodies with others' of the same sex more than girls do.
c. by early adolescence girls have lower self-esteem than boys do, due to concerns about their appearance.
d. once men and women reach the stage of being in college they are equally likely to be dissatisfied with their bodies.

c. by early adolescence girls have lower self-esteem than boys do, due to concerns about their appearance.
37. Research on the impact of peer relationships on socialization have found that

a. for boys and girls peers reinforce age and racial norms as well as gender expectations.
b. gender norms are applied more strictly to boys than to girls.
c. homophobia serves to reinforce gender norms.
d. All of these choices are true

d. All of these choices are true
38. When teachers of either sex respond more to boys (positively and negatively) than to girls, they

a. heighten boys' sense of importance.
b. are ignored.
c. create confusion among boys since they are rewarding both conformity and deviance.
d. have little, if any, effect on how boys or girls perceive themselves.

a. heighten boys' sense of importance
39. Since the passage of Title IX in 1972

a. gender inequality in the schools has disappeared.
b. discrimination by schools on the basis of gender is illegal.
c. boys and girls receive the same treatment by teachers.
d. while treatment by teachers is still unequal, books now feature equal numbers of boys and girls.

b. discrimination by schools on the basis of gender is illegal
40. Researchers on the influence of television has found that

a. both boys and girls rate aggressive toys seen in commercials as desirable.
b. viewing stereotypical images of women has no impact on attitudes toward traditional roles.
c. there is a link between viewing sexist images and holding stronger feminist attitudes.
d. watching television results in a rejection of popular culture stereotypes of both men and women.

a. both boys and girls rate aggressive toys seen in commercials as desirable
41. According to the text, there is a price of conformity to gender norms. Which of these is not a negative consequence for men the results from conformity to gender roles?

a. Gender norms discourage intimacy with other men, affecting friendships.
b. Conformity to gender norms increases risk-taking behavior that may result in death or injury.
c. Gender norms that demand thinness have resulted in men being as diagnosed with eating orders as often as women.
d. Traditional norms of aggressiveness can lead some men to act violently against women

c. Gender norms that demand thinness have resulted in men being as diagnosed with eating orders as often as women
42. In what way is the gender socialization of African American and White women alike?

a. both are encouraged to be nurturing and other-oriented
b. both are equally likely to view work as an expected part of a women's role
c. socialization for both places a strong emphasis on self-sufficiency and independence
d. gender conformity is strongly encouraged for both.

a. both are encouraged to be nurturing and other-oriented
43. How is homophobia related to gender socialization?

a. Homophobia encourages conformity to gender expectations.
b. Homophobia illustrates the validity of biological determinism.
c. Sociologists find that the effect of homophobia on peer socialization has been overstated.
d. Research on homophobia indicates that the "social construction of gender" is a myth.

a. Homophobia encourages conformity to gender expectations.
44. What is the sociological term for the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender?

a. gender apartheid
b. gender roles
c. gender stratification
d. gender assignation

c. gender stratification
45. Which of these is not a trait found to correspond to relatively equal status for men and women within a society?

a. Work is highly segregated according to sex.
b. Women have access to education.
c. Women's work is central to the economy.
d. Men made a contribution to household responsibilities

a. Work is highly segregated according to sex.
46. The extreme exclusion of women from public life, practiced in Afghanistan under the Taliban regime, is termed _____.

a. religious sexism
b. theological patriarchy
c. economic segregation
d. gender apartheid

d. gender apartheid
47. Gender stratification is supported by:

a. a belief that treats gender inequality as nature.
b. individual sexism, not institutional sexism
c. the matriarchal structure of our society.
d. norms and values encouraging gender equality

a. a belief that treats gender inequality as nature.
48. The Equal Pay Act of 1963

a. required married fathers to be paid more than unmarried men.
b. requires that men and women receive equal pay for equal work.
c. required companies to pay men and women equally within the company.
d. required education and experience to be the only factors used to determine pay.

b. requires that men and women receive equal pay for equal work.
49. Which of the following is not an explanation for the gender pay gap?

a. Men and women have different levels of prior experience and training.
b. Men and women tend to be employed in different types of occupations.
c. Women are discriminated against in employment and in wages.
d. Women and men have been affected differently by legislation.

d. Women and men have been affected differently by legislation
50. Human capital theory explains gender differences in wages

a. as created by the different occupations men and women work in.
b. by taking into consideration women's tendency to drop out of the workforce in order to have children.
c. as the result of individual characteristics of workers.
d. as being overstated.

c. as the result of individual characteristics of workers
51. The _____ labor market is characterized by high job turnover, low wages, short or nonexistent promotion ladders, and few benefits.

a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. fringe

b. secondary
52. Sexual harassment is a form of overt discrimination that has a negative impact on women's employment. Which of these statements about sexual harassment is false?

a. Sociologists see sexual harassment as a means that men use to protect their power in the workplace.
b. Cultural changes have resulted in men experiencing as much sexual harassment as women.
c. Women in traditional male-dominated jobs experience the most harassment.
d. Men's preserving of their advantage in the workplace is evidence that women are viewed as sex objects.

b. Cultural changes have resulted in men experiencing as much sexual harassment as women.
53. Even when husbands and wives are both employed outside of the home, the bulk of the domestic responsibilities fall on women. The sociological term for this is ______.

a. the dual labor market
b. gender segregation
c. the second shift
d. familial inequity

c. the second shift
54. According to _____, men and women fill complementary gender roles and this arrangement benefits society.

a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. social control theory

a. functionalism
55. From a ______ perspective, men have historically had the power to benefit from women's labor and devalue women's work.

a. symbolic interactionist
b. conflict c. functionalist
d. social exchange

b. conflict
56. Feminist theorists have focused on the ways in which gender is created and reinforced through social interaction. This is an ethnomethodological perspective termed ______.

a. gender orientation
b. feminist interpretivism
c. institutionalized gender
d. "doing gender"

a. gender orientation
57. The perspective of ______ feminism has been used to support many legal changes to bring about greater equality for women in the United States.

a. liberal
b. socialist
c. radical
d. multiracial

a. liberal
58. Throughout the world, where women are increasingly working as paid laborers,

a. the division of household chores is usually equal between men and women.
b. they do not do as much unpaid labor as men.
c. they still do most of the work associated with home, children, and the elderly.
d. they still do not make a significant contribution to the global economy.

c. they still do most of the work associated with home, children, and the elderly
59. Which of these statements about the status of women worldwide is true?

a. Although there have been few female heads of state, women's representation in parliaments worldwide has reach almost 50 percent.
b. Recent trends toward the greater employment of women outside of the home has resulted in a decrease in the rates of violence against women globally.
c. Across the board, women's status is higher in Western than in non-Western countries.
d. The global division of labor is gendered, with women providing cheap labor for manufacturing.

d. The global division of labor is gendered, with women providing cheap labor for manufacturing.
60. The Equal Rights Amendment:

a. was passed in 1918.
b. was passed in 1963.
c. will be passed in 2012.
d. has not been passed.

d. has not been passed.
61. From a sociological perspective, sex

a. is a strictly private matter.
b. is rooted in social norms, values, and institutions.
c. should be limited to people who are married.
d. is completely natural behavior.

b. is rooted in social norms, values, and institutions.
62. The term for the attraction that a person feels for others of the same or of a different sex is _____.

a. gender identity
b. sexual identity
c. sexual orientation
d. sexuality

c. sexual orientation
63. What is the term for the definition that one has of oneself, that involves one's sexual relationships?

a. gender identity
b. sexual identity
c. sexual orientation
d. sexuality

b. sexual identity
64. What is the relationship between the concepts of sexual orientation and sexual identity?

a. Sexual orientation is something deeply rooted in an individual; sexual identity develops within a social context.
b. Sexual identity is biological; sexual orientation is socially constructed.
c. They mean essentially the same thing.
d. One's sexual orientation determines one's sexual identity.

a. Sexual orientation is something deeply rooted in an individual; sexual identity develops within a social context
65. Sexual behavior is not uniform among all societies. There is evidence that:

a. sexual identity is learned.
b. sex is influenced by economic forces.
c. public policy regulates sexual behavior.
d. sexual behaviors vary by social context.

d. sexual behaviors very by social context
66. In some cultures women do not believe that orgasm exists. Sociologists view this as evidence that

a. there is a need for more sex education throughout the world.
b. in some cultures women do not have orgasms.
c. sexual attitudes and behavior vary cross-culturally.
d. only men experience orgasm.

c. sexual attitudes and behavior vary cross-culturally.
67. Which of the following statement is true of sexual values and attitudes in American society?

a. There is greater tolerance of casual sex today than ever before.
b. The age at which young people are having sex has been increasing over the past two decades.
c. People have more sexual partners over a lifetime than in the past.
d. Fewer people are having sex before marriage than in the past.

c. People have more sexual partners over a lifetime than in the past.
68. Research on how sexual identity is learned indicates that

a. sexual knowledge and sexual identity first begin to develop when a person starts having sex.
b. sexual socialization takes place at a very early age.
c. peers have little or no impact on sexual attitudes.
d. what we learn when we are young has no real impact on our sexual attitudes and behaviors as adults.

b. sexual socialization takes place at a very early age.
69. The sociological term for the sets of behaviors and roles that children follow when playing "house" or "doctor" is _____.

a. dramaturgical roles
b. institutional sexism
c. sexual scripts
d. gender constructs

c. sexual scripts
70. The law dictates who is permitted to legally marry, and the media influence attitudes toward sexuality. From a sociological perspective these examples demonstrate that

a. social institutions play a large role in directing human sexuality.
b. people are unable to think for themselves when it comes to sexuality.
c. in the U.S. there is general consensus on what is appropriate sexual behavior.
d. sexual scripts in the U.S. are more conservative than in other countries.

a. social institutions play a large role in directing human sexuality
71. Children learn sexual scripts by all of the following, except:

a. playing games.
b. their parents.
c. the media.
d. sexual experience.

d. sexual experience.
72. Redlight districts, sex in advertising, and prostitution are all examples of

a. the connection between sex and economic forces in society.
b. illegal sexual activities.
c. activities found only in the U.S.
d. the influence of the media in our society.

a. the connection between sex and economic forces in society.
73. Government support for particular birth control technologies

a. is a form of regulating sexual and reproductive behavior.
b. does not occur within the U.S.
c. has no effect on the decisions that individuals make about reproductive behavior. d. discriminates against women.

a. is a form of regulating sexual and reproductive behavior
74. When it comes to attitudes in the U.S. toward gays and lesbians,

a. most people believe that homosexual relations between consenting adults should be legal.
b. most believe that marriage between couples of the same sex should be legal.
c. there has been little change over the years.
d. most people the policy should be "don't ask, don't tell" in employment situations.

a. most people believe that homosexual relations between consenting adults should be legal.
75. In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that:

a. same-sex marriage is legal.
b. discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is illegal.
c. private sexual relations are a constitutional liberty.
d. sexual orientation is not a legal issue.

c. private sexual relations are a constitutional liberty
76. The theoretical perspective that sees sexuality as part of the power relations and economic inequality in society is _____.

a. functionalist theory
b. conflict theory
c. social exchange theory
d. symbolic interaction theory

b. conflict theory
77. According to _____ theory, sexual violence such as rape or sexual harassment is the result of power imbalances between men and women.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interaction
d. social exchange

b. conflict
78. A person's sexual identity

a. may change throughout at some point in his or her lifetime.
b. depends on how many same-sex relationships he or she has had.
c. is permanent once it has been determined.
d. is predictable at the time he or she is born.

a. may change throughout at some point in his or her lifetime.
79. The introduction of queer theory

a. has strengthened the boundaries between homosexuality and heterosexuality identity.
b. furthers the idea that sexual identity may be a continuum of different possibilities for sexual expression.
c. challenges the belief that there can be multiple types of sexual identity.
d. has not had any impact on how sexual identity is understood.

b. furthers the idea that sexual identity may be a continuum of different possibilities for sexual expression.
80. Sexual politics refers to

a. women candidates running for public office.
b. using sexual images to advertise and promote a particular candidate.
c. the link between sexuality and power in society.
d. who has more power in an individual's marriage.

c. the link between sexuality and power in society.
81. Having casual sexual relations, from kissing to sexual intercourse, without any commitment has been termed ______.

a. the double standard
b. hooking up
c. gender bending
d. making out

b. hooking up
82. The group most vulnerable to sexual exploitation is _____.

a. poor women and women of color
b. working-class women
c. middle-class women
d. women who don't work outside the home

a. poor women and women of color
83. Germany recently legalized gay and lesbian relationships, allowing same-sex couples to register their partnership. This is used in the text to illustrate the that

a. all countries place an emphasis on legal unions.
b. gays and lesbians have the same rights throughout the U.S. and western Europe.
c. tolerance for gay and lesbian relationships varies significantly throughout the world.
d. legalizing and registering partnerships are equally important to same-sex couples.

c. tolerance for gay and lesbian relationships varies significantly throughout the world.
84. The practice of traveling to particular parts of the world in order to engage in commercial sexual activity is termed _____.

a. sex trafficking
b. sex tourism
c. sex capitalism
d. international sexism

b. sex tourism
85. Historically, how have sociologists approached the study of the experience of gays and lesbians?

a. as a form of deviance
b. as part of a spectrum of possibilities for human sexuality
c. as a normal phase in the development of adolescent sexuality
d. sociologists have focused primarily on homophobia

a. as a form of deviance
86. Sociological study of homophobia has found that

a. it occurs naturally in humans.
b. it may be deeply embedded in individuals' definitions of themselves.
c. there is no institutional context for homophobia within the U.S.
d. unlike in other countries, homophobia has little impact on attitudes within the U.S.

b. it may be deeply embedded in individuals' definitions of themselves.
87. Heterosexism refers to:

a. the assumption that heterosexuality is deviant.
b. the institutionalization of heterosexuality as the only legitimate sexual orientation.
c. the systematic denial of rights to homosexuals.
d. the weakening of social norms related to sexual orientation.

b. the institutionalization of heterosexuality as the only legitimate sexual orientation.
88. Though not supported by traditional institutions, gay and lesbian couples

a. are more likely to adopt equal relationship roles.
b. do not usually have both partners employed.
c. still have equal rights to child custody and partner benefits.
d. assume roles of dominance and submission in their relationships.

a. are more likely to adopt equal relationship roles.
89. Research on gay and lesbian relationships has found that

a. they generally include a dominant and submissive role.
b. the quality of the relationship is better when the couple receives social support.
c. there is more inequality in gay and lesbian relationships than in heterosexual relationships.
d. they experience more unemployment than in heterosexual relationships.

b. the quality of the relationship is better when the couple receives social support.
90. Reproduction remains largely controlled by:

a. religion.
b. families.
c. women.
d. men

d. men
91. Since the legalization of abortion, the number abortions has:

a. increased.
b. fluctuated.
c. decreased.
d. stayed the same.

c. decreased.
92. Public opinion about abortion

a. has become increasingly liberal over time.
b. has become increasingly conservative over time.
c. has remained relatively constant over the last 20 years.
d. Has been mixed based on race, class, and age.

c. has remained relatively constant over the last 20 years.
93. The right to abortion was first established in constitutional law by the _____ decision in 1973.

a. Romer v. Evans
b. Eisenstadt v. Baird
c. Roe v. Wade
d. Lawrence v. Griswold

c. Roe v. Wade
94. Which of the following groups is most likely to have an abortion?

a. young women, ages 20-29 c. middle class women
b. women over the age of 40 d. college students

a. young women, ages 20-29
95. The American Psychological Association defines sexualization as including any of the following conditions, except:

a. People are judged primarily on sexual appeal or behavior.
b. Physical attractiveness is equated with being "sexy."
c. People are objectified and have sexuality inappropriately imposed on them.
d. Children are involved in sexual activity more than what would traditionally be considered appropriate.

d. Children are involved in sexual activity more than what would traditionally be considered appropriate.
96. In the U.S., the most commonly-held attitude toward pornography is that it

a. is protected by the constitutional guarantees of free speech and freedom of the press.
b. should be made illegal.
c. has no long lasting impact on attitudes toward women or sexuality generally.
d. should be strictly controlled.

a. is protected by the constitutional guarantees of free speech and freedom of the press.
97. Most teen pregnancies in the U.S.

a. are planned.
b. result in marriage.
c. are correlated with poverty and low educational attainment.
d. are to young teens (ages 13-17).

c. are correlated with poverty and low educational attainment.
98. Sexual coercion or rape is primarily a consequence of

a. sexual attraction.
b. power and dominance resulting from inequality.
c. provocative behavior among victims.
d. sexual permissiveness within society.

b. power and dominance resulting from inequality.
99. The _____ refers to the widespread changes in men's and women's roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of social development.

a. feminist movement c. eugenics movement
b. sexual revolution d. gender revolution

b. sexual revolution
100. Which of the following statements is false about sex and social change?

a. Technological change has brought new possibilities for sexual freedom.
b. The internet has introduced new forms of sexual relations.
c. The sexual revolution has meant greater sexual freedom for women.
d. The sexual revolution has eliminated the influence of gender in sexual relationships.

d. The sexual revolution has eliminated the influence of gender in sexual relationships.
101. Which of the following is not part of the sociological definition of family?

a. a social unit of those related through marriage, ancestry or adoption
b. a group who are committed to maintaining the group over time
c. a social unit related by blood and bound together by love
d. a group who engage in economic cooperation

c. a social unit related by blood and bound together by love
102. Within the U.S., polygamy

a. is widely practiced among Mormons.
b. is illegal.
c. is legal for some Native American groups.
d. does not exist

b. is illegal.
107. The family wage system

a. paid men more than women based on the assumption that they were the breadwinner.
b. was based on the assumption that all members of the family would need to work in wage labor.
c. forced all women to begin to work outside of the home.
d. made families more self-sufficient.

a. paid men more than women based on the assumption that they were the breadwinner.
112. The theoretical perspective that is most concerned with the fact that families are gendered institutions that reflect the gender hierarchies in society is _____.

a. functionalism
b. exchange theory c. symbolic interaction theory
d. feminist theory

d. feminist theory
118. Research on children in gay and lesbian households has found that

a. children of gay and lesbian parents are more likely to be gay or lesbian than the children of heterosexual parents.
b. children of gay and lesbian parents are far greater psychological problems than the children of heterosexual parents.
c. there is very little difference in outcomes for the children of gay and lesbians and the children of heterosexuals.
d. children of gays and lesbians tend to hold very stereotypical ideas about gender norms

c. there is very little difference in outcomes for the children of gay and lesbians and the children of heterosexuals.
124. Moral proscriptions for behavior established by religions

a. are always followed by adherents.
b. are recognized as guides with no consequences for non-compliance.
c. often come to be viewed as right and inviolable.
d. are not typically taken seriously.

c. often come to be viewed as right and inviolable
127. The United States is commonly described as being based on a(n) _____ heritage.

a. non-sectarian
b. manifest destiny
c. Judeo-Christian
d. Anglo-Protestant

c. Judeo-Christian
129. Religiosity is measured by sociologists using all of the following, except

a. by asking about people's religious beliefs
b. surveying people about their membership in religious organizations
c. asking how often people attend religious services
d. collecting information through the Census

d. collecting information through the Census.
131. Which of these major world religions is polytheistic?

a. Catholicism
b. Protestantism
c. Hinduism
d. Buddhism

c. Hinduism
132. Christianity would be categorized as a _____ religion.

a. polytheistic
b. patriarchal
c. matriarchal
d. land-based

b. patriarchal
133. What term did Durkheim give to the body of religious beliefs that give people a sense of belonging?

a. false consciousness
b. collective consciousness
c. ritualized consciousness
d. interactive identity

b. collective consciousness
134. Durkheim's emphasis on rituals and shared meanings fits with which types of sociological theory?

a. conflict theory and functionalism
b. functionalism and symbolic interactionism
c. symbolic interactionism and conflict theory
d. exchange theory and functionalism

b. functionalism and symbolic interactionism
135. Weber's analysis of the Protestant ethic demonstrates

a. that religious beliefs are able to shape even secular dimensions of national culture.
b. the matriarchal nature of Protestantism.
c. the weaknesses of Emile Durkheim's views on the functions of religion.
d. that religion does serve as a type of drug for people who are disadvantaged in life.

a. that religious beliefs are able to shape even secular dimensions of national culture.
136. It is the belief of _____ that religion was developed by the oppressed to relieve their distress.

a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. social exchange theory

b. conflict theory
137. The largest religion in the world (measured in numbers of followers) is _____.

a. Islam
b. Christianity
c. Hinduism
d. Buddhism

b. Christianity
138. Sects are

a. fundamentalist organizations.
b. offshoots of establishes churches.
c. followers of charismatic leaders.
d. devoted to a specific cause.

b. offshoots of establishes churches.
139. Research indicates that faith-based organizations

a. enhance the participation of traditionally disadvantaged groups in the democratic process.
b. violate the principle of separation of church and state.
c. serve to make government more fundamentalist Christian.
d. have had no significant influence on public life in the U.S.

a. enhance the participation of traditionally disadvantaged groups in the democratic process.
140. What is the role of religion in the process of social change?

a. religion may be oppressive, but not liberating
b. religion may be liberating, but not oppressive
c. religion may have a conservative influence, but may also be liberating
d. there is no connection between religion and social change.

c. religion may have a conservative influence, but may also be liberating
141. Education in the U.S. was made compulsory in _____.

a. 1778 b. 1860 c. 1900 d. 1920

c. 1900
142. Schooling refers to

a. informal education.
b. formal, institutionalized education.
c. mandatory education.
d. luxury education

b. formal, institutionalized education.
143. High school and college graduation rates are not the same for all racial-ethnic groups. In fact,

a. Blacks have the lowest graduation rates compared with Whites and Hispanics.
b. Hispanics have the lowest graduation rates, compared with Whites and Blacks.
c. Hispanics have graduation rates that are equal to those of Whites.
d. Blacks have graduation rates that are equal to those of Whites.

b. Hispanics have the lowest graduation rates, compared with Whites and Blacks.
144. The four types of education in the U.S. are parochial, public, private and home schooling. How does home schooling compare with other forms of education?

a. Ninety-five percent of the elementary aged children who were home schooled in 2000 were White.
b. Almost all home-schooled children are Catholic and Mormon.
c. Children who are home-schooled score lower on standardized subject tests than children from public schools.
d. Lower income students tend to be home-schooled more than upper-income students.

a. Ninety-five percent of the elementary aged children who were home schooled in 2000 were White
145. The United States is no longer the world leader in student math and science achievement scores. According to the text, what explains this decline in the nation's standing?

a. inequality within the education system
b. poorly trained teachers
c. No Child Left Behind
d. shorter school years

a. inequality within the education system
146. From a(n) _____ perspective unequal education is used to separate different groups and benefit those in the middle and upper classes.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interactionist
d. interpretivis

b. conflict
147. The _____ perspective focuses on the process of how expectations are created as students and teachers interact.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interactionist
d. postmodern

c. symbolic interactionist
148. Which theoretical perspective is the concept of the teacher expectancy effect associated with?

a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. feminist theory

c. symbolic interactionism
149. The teacher expectancy effect occurs independently of a student's actual ability. What explains this effect?

a. the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy
b. teachers' greater ability than testing to predict academic success
c. the type of students the teacher has
d. the economic environment of the school district

a. the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy
150. What is the relationship between formal education and occupational status?

a. There is none; many people are "self-taught" and work their way up the corporate ladder.
b. The higher one's occupational status, the greater the likelihood that person has a great deal of formal education.
c. Many years of formal education virtually guarantees one will have a high prestige job.
d. Many high prestige jobs require little formal education

b. The higher one's occupational status, the greater the likelihood that person has a great deal of formal education.
151. What is the relationship between income, gender, and education?

a. At every level of education the average income of men is higher than the average income of women.
b. When a woman has more education than a man she can be expected to earn more than he does.
c. Women with a bachelor's degree consistently earn more than men with only a high school diploma.
d. There is no relationship between income, gender, and education.

a. At every level of education the average income of men is higher than the average income of women.
152. How are occupation, class, and education related?

a. One's social class is heavily influenced by level of formal education.
b. One's occupation is heavily influenced by social class background and formal education.
c. Elite boarding schools that prepare students for elite occupations are attended by members of all social classes in equal proportions.
d. Education provides upward social mobility for all, regardless of class

b. One's occupation is heavily influenced by social class background and formal education.
153. A major criticism of standardized ability tests is of what they consider "standardized" knowledge. In fact, research indicates that they

a. predict future school performance for African Americans better than for Whites.
b. predict future school performance for women better than for men.
c. predict future school performance for White males better than for others.
d. are not able to predict future school performance for people with any particular social trait.

c. predict future school performance for White males better than for others.
154. Standardized ability tests are best at predicting future school performance for _____.

a. White males
b. African American males
c. Hispanic females
d. Asian females

a. White males
155. Research on tracking has found all of the following, except:

a. students in the lower tracks learn less because they are taught less.
b. even students with the same test scores are put into different tracks according to their race and social class.
c. less is expected of lower track students and so their academic performance is lower.
d. detracking penalizes high achieving students.

d. detracking penalizes high achieving students.
156. What has been the outcome of No Child Left Behind?

a. The racial achievement gap has narrowed.
b. The racial achievement gap has widened.
c. Test scores have improved for most students.
d. There has been no change in test scores.

b. The racial achievement gap has widened.
157. When germ theory first became established as the foundation of medicine,

a. there were still no American physicians.
b. the practice of medicine was transformed into a science.
c. more people could help prevent illness so doctors become less important.
d. the American Medical Association took credit

b. the practice of medicine was transformed into a science.
158. Health care is _____.

a. a matter of science and an elaborate social structure
b. a social system of behaviors and a for-profit only business
c. a cultural reflection and a social structure
d. a medical matter and a flawed enterprise

a. a matter of science and an elaborate social structure
159. Recently, obesity has become

a. a minimized problem.
b. defined as a public health problem.
c. an individual issue.
d. largely solved.

b. defined as a public health problem.
160. Which geographic region of the United States has the highest obesity rates?

a. Northeast
b. Northwest
c. Southwest
d. Mid-South

d. Mid-South
161. More than _____ of new cases of AIDS are the result of male-to-male sexual contact.

a. one-fourth b. one-third c. one-half d. two-thirds

c. one-half
162. Most women who acquire AIDS do so

a. through intravenous drug use.
b. through same-sex sexual contact.
c. through heterosexual contact.
d. through blood transfusions.

c. through heterosexual contact.
163. According to the _____ perspective, the positive functions of the health care system are the prevention and treatment of disease.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interactionist
d. feminist

a. functionalist
164. According to the _____ perspective, excessive bureaucratization of the health care system and privatization has lead to excessive cost.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interactionist
d.feminist

b. conflict
165. According to the _____ perspective, structural inequality is a major source of problems within the health care system.

a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. symbolic interactionist
d. interpretivist

b. conflict
166. Which perspective is most likely to believe that illness is partly socially constructed?

a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. social exchange theory

c. symbolic interaction theory
167. Symbolic interactionists who have studied the meanings conveyed during interaction between health care providers and the poor have found that

a. the poor are more likely to be given careful, accurate health care information.
b. the poor are treated as if they should be happy with whatever care they get.
c. relationships between health care workers and the poor are more positive than those with higher income patients.
d. the poor have more options than middle-income people about where to go for care.

b. the poor are treated as if they should be happy with whatever care they get.
168. Immunization against childhood diseases is widely taken for granted. In reality, how is immunization distributed throughout the U.S.?

a. Many inner city and rural residents are suspicious of or don't understand the importance of immunizations for children.
b. Government health care programs have been particularly effective in reaching children in urban areas.
c. Special attention is always given to the Appalachian region of the U.S. where a larger percentage of children are vaccinated than in other parts of the country.
d. Childhood immunizations are the one type of health care service that is not extremely stratified in terms of its distribution.

a. Many inner city and rural residents are suspicious of or don't understand the importance of immunizations for children.
169. How is access to health care in the U.S. distributed throughout the population?

a. Health care is more available in urban and suburban areas than in rural areas.
b. Native American reservations have more health clinics for the population than most other areas of the country.
c. Women are seen as needing more help and receive far more attention than men.
d. Health care is one thing that members of minority groups and Whites have fairly equal access to.

a. Health care is more available in urban and suburban areas than in rural areas.
170. The study of all the factors associated with disease in society is called _____.

a. epidemiology
b. etiology
c. entomology
d. social gerontology

a. epidemiology
171. Increasing diversity in society creates new challenges for the health care system. The text notes that immigrants to the U.S.

a. are generally treated better than native born Americans.
b. tend to feel most satisfied with their health care when their physician is White.
c. experience social distance from health care providers that makes them reluctant to seek care.
d. seek out medical professionals from their home countries

c. experience social distance from health care providers that makes them reluctant to seek care.
172. Research on the relationship of social class to health care finds that

a. people with lower incomes do not generally rate their health as excellent.
b. those in lower social classes have rates of infant mortality and stillbirths roughly equal to those of upper-class people.
c. lower income people are less likely to smoke than upper-class people.
d. those using Medicaid are healthier than those not using Medicaid.

a. people with lower incomes do not generally rate their health as excellent.
173. Research on gender and health finds that

a. older women are more likely than older men to suffer from stress, hypertension and chronic illness.
b. as women age, health status improves so they are less likely to contract disease.
c. men and women now have about the same average life expectancy.
d. throughout their life span men are more likely to be overweight than women.

a. older women are more likely than older men to suffer from stress, hypertension and chronic illness.
174. Social conditions have a significant effect on health. In fact,

a. male occupational roles put them at greater risk than women of infectious disease.
b. perceived discrimination against oneself is related to psychological and physical health.
c. housewives have higher rates of illness than women who work outside the home.
d. All of these choices are true.

d. All of these choices are true.
175. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers and schools to provide _____.

a. "rational aid"
b. "equitable assistance"
c. "practical help"
d. "reasonable accommodations

d. "reasonable accommodations
176. Medicare provides all of the following, except:

a. medical insurance
b. prescription drug plans
c. hospital care
d. dental care

d. dental care
177. According to the text, the U.S. currently spends about _____ of its gross domestic product on health care.
a. 5 percent b. 10 percent c. 15 percent d. 20 percent
c. 15 percent
178. Comparing the health care system of the U.S. with those of other industrialized countries, the text notes that

a. the U.S. spends more money and coverage is less comprehensive than in other industrialized countries.
b. the U.S. has the indisputably best health care delivery system among industrialized countries.
c. it is not possible to provide health coverage for the majority of the population for less than 13% of the gross domestic product.
d. the U.S. leads in cost-efficient management of health care.

a. the U.S. spends more money and coverage is less comprehensive than in other industrialized countries
179. According to the text, which of these is a not major contributor to skyrocketing health-care costs in the U.S.?
a. increasing costs of hospital care
b. the costs of malpractice insurance
c. third party payment system
d. high rates of uninsured
d. high rates of uninsured
180. The Affordable Health Care for America Act of 2010 does all of the following, except:

a. require all people to purchase a health insurance plan.
b. prohibit insurers from rejecting customers based on preexisting conditions.
c. provide free health coverage for all children under the age of 18.
d. require employers to provide health insurance for employees.

c. provide free health coverage for all children under the age of 18