Sociology
Science or study of origin, development, organization, and functioning of a human society. Society affects the way humans interact.
Sociological perspective
A way of looking at reality, the familiar is the objective you take it for granted as real because social reality is socially constructed
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Peter Berger
American Sociologist who defined the sociological perspective as the ability to view the world from two distinct yet complementary perspectives: seeing the general in the particular and seeing the strange in the familiar.
Emile Durkheim
1858-1917. Human Potential is socially based. French Sociologist. Rapid Social Change puts strains on society which causes a breakdown in Society. Anomie- social control becomes ineffective bc of loosing shared values. Founding Figure in Functionalist Group. Did a study on Suicide
Structural functionalism
A theoretical perspective that views society as an organized system, analogous to the human system, that is made up of a variety of interrelated parts or structures that work together to generate social stability and maintain society.
C. Wright Mills
Created the idea of Sociological imagination:The ability to see the impact of social forces(public issues) on individuals, especially their private lives (personal troubles)
High income/middle income/low income nations
High Income - nations with the highest overall standard of living
Middle income - nations with a standard of living above average for the world as a whole
Low income - nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
American status in terms of income levels as compared with other nations
America's a wealthier country where even the poor are better off than people in third world countries
The global perspective
The study of the larger world and our societies place in is
Factors which led to the rise of sociology as a discipline
The growth of sociology as an academic discipline in the United States coincided with the establishment and upgrading of many universities that were including a new focus on graduate departments and curricula on "modern subjects."
Conditions in which the social logical perspective is most likely to develop
Countries experiencing rapid social changes
Benefits of learning the sociological perspective
Challenging commonly held beliefs
Learning more about sociology helps us to:
A. Be more active participants in society
B. See the constraints in our lives
C. See the opportunities in our lives
The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was:
Emile Durkheim
Theory
A statement of how my specific facts are related
Social structure
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
Conflict theory
Created by Marx says society is a arena where human interaction is carried out mostly through conflict over resources and wealth and is carried out through the classes
Symbolic interactionism
A framework for building theory that sees society as it the product of the everyday interactions in it
Macroscopic perspective
It looks at society as a whole
Microscopic perspective
looks at a problem from the smaller bits which are connected
Karl Marx
(1818-1883)-German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development.
Bourgeoisie
In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professions. Now describes the rich.
proletariat
workers or working-class people, regarded collectively (often used with reference to Marxism).
Capitalist
People own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
Social function
The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
Social dysfunction
Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
Feminism
Support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
Inductive logic
Reasoning that transforms specific observations into General theory
Deductive logic
Reasoning that transforms general theory into specific hypothesis suitable for testing
Science
A logical system the bases knowledge on the direct, systematic observation
Empirical evidence
Information we can verify with our senses
Concept
A metal construction that represents some part of the world in a simplified
Variable
A concept who's value changes from case to case
Measurement
A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific
Operationalizing variables
Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable
Reliability
Consistency in measurement
Validity
Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
Cause and effect
A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
Independent variable
The variable that causes the change
Dépendant variable
The variable that changes
Correlation
A relationship in which two or more valuables change together
Spurious correlation
an apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable
Control
Holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
Objectivity
Personal neutrality in conducting research
Replication
Repeating the research by other investigators
Research method
A systematic plan for doing research
Experiment
A research method for investigating cause-and-effect under highly controlled conditions
Hypothesis
A statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables
Bias
prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
Hawthorne effect
A change in a subject behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
Population
The people who are the focus of research
Sample
A part of a population that represents the whole
Survey
A research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or a interview
Questionnaire
A series of written questions a researcher presents to subjects
Interview
A series of questions a researcher asks respondents in person
Participant observation
A research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
Secondary analysis
In the analysis of research data, secondary analyses look at questions that are not directly stated in the original research hypothesis but that may be relevant to understanding some of the primary analyses.
The Lenskis
Gerhard Lenski sociologist that describes how societites have changed over the past 10,000 years. points to the importance of techonlogy in shaping society
Sociocultural evolution
Lenskis term for the change that occurs in society gains new technology
Technology
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surrounding
Division of labor
Specialized economic activity
Sustainability
using our resources today so that we don't compromise our resources for future generations. How we can use our recourse to keep us alive.