The complex system that includes a group's beliefs, values, dress, and way of life, is called
_____.
a. counterculture
b. culture
c. social structure
d. culture complex
b. culture
Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
a. a painting
b. a fashion magazine
c. a building
d. table manners
d. table manners
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Material culture consists of
a. objects created in a given culture.
b. ideas and beliefs of a group of people.
c. laws, customs, and ideas.
d. ideas about what is right and wrong.
a. objects created in a given culture.
Norms, values, laws, and customs are all examples of _____.
a. high culture
b. material culture
c. nonmaterial culture
d. nontraditional culture
c. nonmaterial culture
Why is culture important to humans?
a. A person must learn culture in order to know how to behave in their society.
b. Having culture gives a person higher status than other people.
c. The more culture one has, the more income one will earn.
d. None of these; culture is not of particular importance for humans.
a. A person must learn culture in order to know how to behave in their society.
Which of the following is true about the meanings of symbols?
a. They depend on the culture in which they appear.
b. They have no influence on human behavior.
c. They are inherent in the symbol itself.
d. They are always the same, regardless of the context in which they exist.
a. They depend on the culture in which they appear.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggests that:
a. reality is the result of social inequality.
b. language provides the category through which social reality is defined.
c. there is no relationship between language and culture.
d. language reflects social differences and therefore material culture.
b. language provides the category through which social reality is defined.
The specific cultural expectations for how to behave in a given situation are called _____.
a. norms
b. directives
c. belief-based actualizations
d. culture-constructs
a. norms
Two classic cultural concepts associated with the work of William Graham Sumner are
_____.
a. explicit and implicit norms
b. folkways and mores
c. dominant culture and subcultures
d. culture traits and culture concepts
b. folkways and mores
Folkways are
a. the ordinary customs of different group cultures.
b. strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior.
c. often upheld through laws that bring serious repercussions.
d. norms that provide strict codes of behavior.
a. the ordinary customs of different group cultures.
Mores are
a. the ordinary customs of different group cultures.
b. strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior.
c. often upheld through laws that bring serious repercussions.
d. norms that provide strict codes of behavior.
b. strict norms that control moral and ethical behavior.
The strength or seriousness of social sanctions is
a. harsh, regardless of how strictly the norm is held.
b. generally lighter for violations of folkways than violations of mores.
c. unrelated to the type of norm that is violated.
d. not something that sociologists consider in the study of norm violations.
b. generally lighter for violations of folkways than violations of mores.
Shared subjective ideas that help bind people in society together are called _____.
a. folkways
b. beliefs
c. mores
d. sanctions
b. beliefs
The abstract standards that define the ideal, desired, and morally correct principles of a
society are called _____.
a. beliefs
b. values
c. myths
d. mores
b. values
Freedom, justice, and education are examples of:
a. sanctions
b. functions
c. values
d. mores
c. values
In every society, the dominant culture is
a. the only culture in society.
b. the culture of the most powerful group.
c. strongly influenced by minority subcultures.
d. always the culture of the majority of people.
b. the culture of the most powerful group.
The cultures of groups whose values and norms differ to some extent from those of the
dominant culture are called _____.
a. countercultures
b. subcultures
c. popular cultures
d. postmodern cultures
b. subcultures
The difference between subcultures and countercultures is that
a. countercultures reject and defy the dominant culture and subcultures do not.
b. subcultures are created as a reaction to the dominant culture and subcultures do not.
c. countercultures retreat from the dominant culture and subcultures do not.
d. subcultures cause the development of countercultures.
a. countercultures reject and defy the dominant culture and subcultures do not.
The habit of seeing things only from the point of view of one's own group is called _____.
a. ethnocentrism
b. xenocentrism
c. cultural relativism
d. multiculturalism
a. ethnocentrism
Extreme ethnocentrism
a. is rare.
b. may result in violence, including terrorism, war, and genocide.
c. is found primarily in less developed countries.
d. has not been studied by sociologists.
b. may result in violence, including terrorism, war, and genocide.
Cultural relativism is the idea that
a. a phenomena should be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears.
b. things should be viewed from one's own point of view.
c. culture is diffused throughout the world.
d. cultures are created in reaction to social change.
a. a phenomena should be understood and judged only in relationship to the cultural context in which it appears.
The widespread dissemination of information and entertainment through widely available
channels of communication is called _____.
a. mass media
b. cyber media
c. cultured media
d. elite media
a. mass media
Cultural hegemony refers to
a. the excessive influence of one culture in society.
b. the social agreement that the powerful should control the media.
c. the belief that mass media's influence is larger than desirable.
d. multiple cultures merging to create a new mass media.
a. the excessive influence of one culture in society.
Mass media influences
a. values alone.
b. styles, but not values.
c. language, but not styles..
d. values, styles, and language.
d. values, styles, and language.
Content analyses of media demonstrate that there are patterns for how race, gender and social
class are presented. For example, research on the content of television reveals that
a. during prime time the majority of television characters are women.
b. Hispanics have caught up with whites and are now equally represented on tv.
c. more women are shown in professional roles, & beauty has become less important.
d. racial and gender stereotypes continue to dominate on television.
d. racial and gender stereotypes continue to dominate on television.
The reflection hypothesis contends that
a. media organizations create popular values.
b. the mass media reflects the values of the general population.
c. non-material culture shapes material culture.
d. the media try to appeal to the rich and powerful.
b. the mass media reflects the values of the general population.
The classic analysis of the Protestant work ethic and the emergence of capitalism was
conducted by _____.
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Pierre Bourdieu
c. Max Weber
d. Robert Putnam
c. Max Weber
_____ theorists are most likely to emphasize that cultural norms and beliefs integrate people
into groups and create social bonds.
a. Functionalist
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic interactionist
d. New cultural studies
a. Functionalist
Which type of theorist is most likely to emphasize that culture serves the interest of powerful
group in society?
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction
d. new cultural studies
b. conflict theory
Symbolic interactionists emphasize
a. the economic basis of behavior.
b. the role of culture in creating social solidarity.
c. the manifest and latent functions of culture.
d. the social construction of culture.
d. the social construction of culture.
The orientation that sees society as comprised of the images and words that people use to
represent behavior and ideas is called _____.
a. new cultural studies
b. postmodernism
c. critical sociology
d. new age theory
b. postmodernism
When one aspect of culture changes more slowly than other aspects, sociologists call this
a. cultural leveling.
b. cultural obstructions.
c. cultural lag.
d. cultural construction.
c. cultural lag.
Culture shock refers to
a. the experience of realizing that you are aging and culture is changing.
b. the introduction of new technologies to older members of society.
c. the feeling of disorientation one feels when placed in a new or rapidly changing
cultural environment.
d. the sticker shock of constantly increasing prices.
c. the feeling of disorientation one feels when placed in a new or rapidly changing
cultural environment.
The transmission of cultural elements from one society to another is called _____.
a. cultural hegemony
b. cultural diffusion
c. cultural lag
d. cultural shock
b. cultural diffusion
Movements like the "Black is Beautiful" movement of the 1960s, and the push to teach
Native American children their indigenous languages, demonstrate that
a. culture is static.
b. culture may be used as a means of political resistance.
c. the control exercised by the dominant culture is complete.
d. nonmaterial culture is more important than material culture.
b. culture may be used as a means of political resistance.
The case of Genie, a girl who was isolated for most of her childhood, illustrates that
a. human beings need social contact for normal development.
b. the human genome project will be able to create humans without socialization.
c. human development is possible without socialization.
d. society is not as important as biology for human development.
a. human beings need social contact for normal development.
____ are the expected behaviors associated with a given status in society.
a. Roles
b. Norms
c. Folkways
d. Values
a. Roles
Which of the following is true regarding socialization?
a. The socialization experience differs for individuals based on their social location.
b. The process of socialization is most directly considered psychological.
c. Through socialization, individuals internalize behaviors.
d. Personality is the basis for socialization.
a. The socialization experience differs for individuals based on their social location.
Social scientists and others debate whether humanness is naturally occurring or socially
created. This is called the ______ debate.
a. inherent - innate
b. internal-external
c. nature - nurture
d. sociology - biology
c. nature - nurture
5. Most sociologists would probably agree that in the nature-nurture debate,
a. nature is more important than nurture in the development of humanness.
b. for some people biology seems to be the more important influence; for others social
interaction is more important.
c. human development is the result of the interaction of natural and social influences.
d. nurture seems to be the ultimate determinant of human nature.
c. human development is the result of the interaction of natural and social influences.
Within sociology, the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are
brought into conformity with dominant social expectations is called _____.
a. criminology
b. socialization
c. social control
d. punishments
c. social control
One consequence of socialization is that is makes people bearers of culture. Which of these
outcomes of socialization is most related to people as bearers of culture?
a. Socialization shapes a person's self concept.
b. Socialization creates the capacity for understanding the perspective of other people.
c. Socialization creates the tendency to act in socially acceptable ways.
d. Socialization ultimately produces society itself.
d. Socialization ultimately produces society itself.
The research stated in the text indicates, males are more likely to rate themselves __ females.
a. cooperative than
b. spiritual than
c. self-confident than
d. better writers than
c. self-confident than
The text presents the example of the difference in how American and Japanese mothers talk to
their children in order to demonstrate that
a. socialization practices reflect what is important in a particular culture.
b. not all cultures practice socialization in the home.
c. patterns of socialization are the same throughout the world.
d. there is little difference in how U.S. and Japanese mothers talk to their children.
a. socialization practices reflect what is important in a particular culture.
The text uses "creationism" as an example of how the social context influences religious
socialization. How does the social context related to "creationism"?
a. People become creationists as adults when they learn evolutionary theory.
b. Creationism is equally distributed among people in different religious faith.
c. Creationists tend to come from small towns where they have been less exposed to
other influences.
d. Creationism is more pronounced in nontraditional families.
c. Creationists tend to come from small towns where they have been less exposed to
other influences.
Recent research indicates that as agents of socialization, sports
a. are more important sources of identity for men than women.
b. are where many ideas about gender differences are formed and reinforced.
c. have historically been significant in the formation of women's identity.
d. have been less significant in the development of masculine identity than was
previously believed.
b. are where many ideas about gender differences are formed and reinforced.
Sociologists use the term _____ to refer to the subtle messages about race, class, and gender
roles that are conveyed through classroom interaction and classroom materials.
a. self-fulfilling prophecy
b. tracking system
c. hidden curriculum
d. unequal discourse
c. hidden curriculum
Psychoanalytic theories of socialization are based on the work of Sigmund Freud, whose
theoretical contribution related to socialization is
a. the looking glass self.
b. the I and the Me.
c. the idea that the subconscious mind shapes human behavior.
d. the need for psychoanalysis for everyone to discover
c. the idea that the subconscious mind shapes human behavior.
Feminist Sociologist Nancy Chodorow contends that
a. men and women become less different once they become adults.
b. the basic premises of psychoanalytic theory are incorrect.
c. "male envy" is common among U.S. women.
d. women tend to have personalities based on attachment and orientation toward
others.
d. women tend to have personalities based on attachment and orientation toward
others.
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget believed that
a. people are passive creatures who merely responded to stimuli in their environment.
b. while learning is crucial to socialization, imagination also has a critical role.
c. the importance of schema is overemphasized in theories of socialization.
d. there are really no distinctive stages of cognitive development.
b. while learning is crucial to socialization, imagination also has a critical role.
Which of the following is the correct sequence for the stages in Piaget's cognitive
development theory?
a. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
b. preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational, and concrete operational
c. concrete operational, preoperational, sensorimotor, and formal operational
d. formal operational, preoperational, sensorimotor, and concrete operational
a. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
According to _____, society maintains its stability through socialization.
a. psychosocial
b. social learning
c. functionalism
d. conflict theory
c. functionalism
Although the process of socialization promotes conformity, individual are also shaped by
resistance to conformity and to oppression. This is an argument of _____.
a. conflict theory
b. functionalism
c. social learning theory
d. symbolic interaction theory
b. functionalism
Albert likes to play catch with his brother, but he cannot understand the complete game of
baseball. Albert is likely in which of Mead's stages?
a. imitation
b. play
c. game
d. taking
b. play
Which of the following is not part of the process of the Cooley's looking glass self?
a. We watch others and learn the basic rules of identity.
b. We consider how we think we appear to others.
c. We consider how we think others judge us.
d. How we think others perceive us affect how we feel.
a. We watch others and learn the basic rules of identity.
Mead's stages, in their correct order, are
a. imitation, sensorimotor, operational.
b. preoperational, play, concrete operational.
c. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational.
d. imitation, play, game.
d. imitation, play, game.
George Herbert Mead used the term _____ to refer to people like parents, siblings, or friends.
a. generalized other
b. important other
c. significant other
d. familiar other
c. significant other
Which of the following statements is true about the process of socialization?
a. Socialization begins the moment a person is born.
b. By adolescence the socialization process is complete.
c. Socialization ends when one becomes an adult.
d. One's identity becomes fixed during the process of early
a. Socialization begins the moment a person is born.
Researchers interested in how socialization takes place during childhood observed the
behaviors of parents walking with children in public. The researchers noted that
a. mothers carried their children more than fathers.
b. fathers were more likely to be pushing an empty stroller than were mothers.
c. both parents were more protective of girls than of boys.
d. both parents were more protective of boys than girls.
c. both parents were more protective of girls than of boys.
Molly wants to be a nurse. During college she volunteers at the local hospital. This is....
a. an example of resocialization.
b. an example of anticipatory socialization.
c. an example of adolescent socialization.
d. an example of medical socialization.
b. an example of anticipatory socialization.
According to the perspective of ______, age differentiation contributes to the common good
of society because each group has varying degrees of usefulness for society.
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. disengagement theory
a. functionalism
According to the _____ perspective, the diminished usefulness of the elderly justifies their
depressed earning power.
a. functionalist
b. conflict
c. psychoanalytic
d. symbolic interactionist
a. functionalist
The meaning of different age groups varies from culture to culture. This would be of most
interest to _____.
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. object relations theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
Tommy joined a cult where he was given a new name and moved away from his family in
order to learn the "right way." Tommy is going through _____.
a. anticipatory socialization
b. reverse socialization
c. resocialization
d. amalgamation
c. resocialization
When people are held captive, deprived of sustenance or otherwise abused they sometimes
come to identify with their captor or abuser because they are dependent upon them. This
phenomenon has been termed _____.
a. the Stockholm Syndrome
b. the Shreve Syndrome
c. brainwashing
d. desocialization
a. the Stockholm Syndrome
In a triad, when two of the people are interacting and form a dyad, the sociological term for the third
person is _____.
a. an outcast
b. an isolate
c. a third party
d. a co-participant
b. an isolate
Triadic segregation refers to:
a. the tendency for triads to develop into a pair and an isolate.
b. the likelihood of dyads to be stable.
c. the emergence of coalitions.
d. the predisposition for primary groups to be small.
a. the tendency for triads to develop into a pair and an isolate.
In his study of the effect of size on group dynamics, Simmel found that
a. a dyad is basically an unstable social grouping.
b. a triad is an unstable social grouping, whereas dyads are relatively stable.
c. adding a third person to a dyad has no effect on the stability of the group.
d. the size of the group has no effect on interaction.
b. a triad is an unstable social grouping, whereas dyads are relatively stable.
The sociologist who introduced the concept of primary groups is _____.
a. Charles Horton Cooley
b. George Herbert Mead
c. Georg Simmel
d. Charles Page
a. Charles Horton Cooley
Which of the following is an example of a primary group?
a. classmates
b. neighbors
c. family
d. teachers
c. family
_____ are small and intimate; _____ are larger and short-lived.
a. Primary groups; secondary groups
b. Secondary groups; primary groups.
c. Triads; dyads
d. Categories; secondary groups
a. Primary groups; secondary groups
Primary groups provide for an individual's _____ needs; secondary groups provide for an individual's
_____ needs.
a. expressive; instrumental
b. instrumental; psychological
c. instrumental; expressive
d. socioemotional; expressive
a. expressive; instrumental
Sociologists use the term instrumental needs to refer to the ______ of a person.
a. emotional and intimate needs
b. socio-biological needs
c. task-oriented needs
d. formative needs
c. task-oriented needs
_____ promote a sense of "us;" ____ promote a sense of "them."
a. Dyads; triads
b. Primary groups; secondary groups
c. In-groups; out-groups
d. Reference groups; attribution groups
c. In-groups; out-groups
Thomas Pettigrew's summary of research on attribution theory found that
a. individuals are accurate in their perception of the motives of other people's acts, regardless
of their in-group or out-group membership.
b. attribution error is much less common than people think.
c. individuals commonly distort the motives/ acts of people whom they see as out-group.
d. when provided with information about out-groups that disproves negative perceptions of
c. individuals commonly distort the motives/ acts of people whom they see as out-group.
Attribution error refers to a situation in which one
a. fails to see that group membership is the cause of a person's behavior.
b. falsely attributes a person's behavior to membership in a particular group.
c. blames something on one person that is really the fault of another person.
d. completely misunderstands the action in a particular situation.
b. falsely attributes a person's behavior to membership in a particular group.
Which of the following does not illustrate a common type of attribution error?
a. a girl who does well in neuroscience is perceived as being unusually smart
b. a white person observes a white student taking a wallet out of someone's purse and
assumes the student was asked to do so by the owner
c. a Hispanic youth is carrying a baseball bat and it is assumed he intends to vandalize things
d. All of these are illustrations of attribution error.
d. All of these are illustrations of attribution error.
A person reads in the newspaper that a Black youth has been shot by a White police officer. If no other
information is available, attribution theory suggests that
a. a White person will view the shooting as an unnecessary act of violence.
b. both Black and White people will assume that youth gang activity was a problem.
c. a Black person will likely believe the shooting was unnecessary, while a White person will
assume the officer acted appropriately.
d. neither a Black nor a White person will make any assumptions about the situation until
they have learned more information.
c. a Black person will likely believe the shooting was unnecessary, while a White person will
assume the officer acted appropriately.
The sociological term for a set of links between individuals or between other social groups is _____.
a. consortium
b. social network
c. organizational complex
d. interactive web
b. social network
Which of the following is false about the formation of social networks?
a. Networks are must often formed in very conscious and formal ways.
b. The formation of networks can be very spontaneous.
c. Social networks may form at home, work, church, or many other places.
d. Family networks can lead to jobs and upward mobility.
a. Networks are must often formed in very conscious and formal ways.
According to research, which of the following is most likely to lead to getting a job?
a. using a personal network
b. applying through a job listing online
c. answering a help wanted ad
d. using a placement agencies
a. using a personal network
Sometimes people will comment that it is a "small world" when they coincidentally meet the friend of
a friend. Research into the "small world problem" demonstrates that
a. networks do not reach as far as was believed in the past.
b. employment agencies are more effective than networks at directing people toward jobs.
c. social networking is a thing of the past; it is now out-of-date.
d. networks make the world seem a lot smaller than many might think.
d. networks make the world seem a lot smaller than many might think.
The reality of the expression "it's a small world" is that
a. there is no interconnection throughout the world.
b. people are interconnected in close social networks regardless of their sex, race, and social
class.
c. the world is a small place for most people in it.
d. the world is only a small place for those in one's immediate network (those who share the
same race, class, and sex).
d. the world is only a small place for those in one's immediate network (those who share the
same race, class, and sex).
A recent study by Taylor and associates, of networks among Black leaders within the U.S., found that
Black leaders
a. do not depend on networks as much as Whites.
b. feel isolated and do not know others who share their situation and background.
c. form closer networks with greater density than do Whites.
d. do not attach any importance to networks, preferring to work only through friends.
c. form closer networks with greater density than do Whites.
The influence of groups
a. ends once one reaches adulthood.
b. affects how we dress and how we style our hair.
c. has little effect on nonconformists.
d. is stronger for Whites than Blacks.
b. affects how we dress and how we style our hair.
According to social psychologist Philip Zimbardo, how do most people respond to hearing about the
overly conforming behavior of others in groups?
a. They empathize because they know they would behave the same way.
b. They understand that for most people conformity is the norm.
c. They believe that they themselves would not succumb to group pressure.
d. They think that the conformity is the result of group members being tricked in some way.
c. They believe that they themselves would not succumb to group pressure.
In his classic study of perception and group pressure, Asch found that
a. even rather gentle pressure was sufficient to cause an astonishing rise in the number of wrong answers.
b. most people would not bend to the opinions of others without a great deal of anger and argument.
c. the majority of people make up their minds for themselves and stick to those opinions.
d. there is no real pressure to conform in most situations.
a. even rather gentle pressure was sufficient to cause an astonishing rise in the number of wrong answers.
In the now famous Milgram Obedience Studies, the results demonstrated that
a. people will not conform when they believe their behavior will harm another person.
b. women are less likely to engage in behavior that is potentially harmful for others than men
are.
c. there is a significant difference between what people believe they will do and how they
actually behave.
d. people only conform up to a certain point, but will not violate moral or ethical standards.
c. there is a significant difference between what people believe they will do and how they
actually behave.
Deindividuation refers to
a. the inability of a person to think for themselves.
b. the willingness of a person to take the blame for the entire group.
c. the sense of merging with the group so that blame will be shared, not directed toward any
individual.
d. a sense of normlessness.
c. the sense of merging with the group so that blame will be shared, not directed toward any
individual.
Which of the following is not characteristic of Weber's "ideal type" bureaucracy?
a. cooperative structures for accomplishing tasks
b. impersonal relationships
c. formal rules and regulations
d. high levels of efficiency
a. cooperative structures for accomplishing tasks
Alienation refers to the _____.
a. psychological separation of a person from an organization
b. rigid adherence to rules and regulations
c. shift away from intimate relationships with others
d. physical movement away from a negative interaction
a. psychological separation of a person from an organization
The concept of "McDonaldization" refers to
a. the increasing number of franchises among U.S. businesses.
b. Americans' desire for fast food is resulting in a tendency toward obesity.
c. the way that the principles of fast food restaurants are dominating other aspects of life.
d. the frequent turnover in employees that occurs due to alienation.
c. the way that the principles of fast food restaurants are dominating other aspects of life.
The central focus of _____ is: positive functions contribute to unity and stability of the organization.
a. functionalist theory
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. social exchange theory
a. functionalist theory
The fact that women and minorities, as well as members of lower social classes, are not treated equally
within bureaucracies is focus of _____.
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. social exchange theory
b. conflict theory
The results of Solomon Asch's classic study of conformity were that
a. test subjects required a great deal of harassment before they would succumb to group pressure
and give an incorrect answer.
b. individuals are likely to conform to group pressure, even if the group is objectively incorrect.
c. the size of the group of confederates do not make any difference in the likelihood of the
subject to give an incorrect response.
d. male subjects were more likely to conform than female subjects.
b. individuals are likely to conform to group pressure, even if the group is objectively incorrect.
....is a relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have uneven
access to power, resources, and social rewards.
a. social differentiation
b. social stratification
c. social inequality
d. social status
b. social stratification
What is the difference between stratification and differentiation?
a. Differentiation is based on different social status, stratification is not.
b. Differentiation is not necessarily unequal, but stratification is.
c. Stratification is about individual, differentiation is about organizations.
d. Stratification exists in modern societies, and differentiation existed in the past.
b. Differentiation is not necessarily unequal, but stratification is.
The Middle Ages European feudal societies are an example of a(n)___system of stratification.
a. estate
b. caste
c. class
d. socialist
a. estate
In a caste system, one's place in the stratification system is an _____ status; in a class system,
one's place in the stratification system is an _____ status.
a. achieved; ascribed
b. master; achieved
c. ascribed; master
d. ascribed, achieved
d. ascribed, achieved
The position one holds in relation to the economic, political, social and cultural resources in a
society is called one's _____.
a. social achievement
b. social organization
c. social class
d. cohort
c. social class
Which of the following is false regarding social class?
a. Social class shapes one's access to resources in society.
b. It is not possible to directly observe social class.
c. It is not possible for people to change whatever social class they are born into.
d. People in the same social class share similar opportunities.
c. It is not possible for people to change whatever social class they are born into.
Weber called the opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to a
particular class _____.
a. strata indicators
b. social attributes
c. life chances
d. social anomalies
c. life chances
What do sociologists use to measure social class?
a. education level
b. occupation
c. income
d. all of these
d. all of these
What is the sociological term for the process by which people end up in any given position in
the stratification system?
a. stratification achievement
b. ascription
c. status attainment
d. goal orientation
c. status attainment
In the United States
a. it is very common for people to start out poor and yet achieve great wealth.
b. most people live their entire lives as members of a social class they were born into.
c. a person's individual achievements have no effect on their social class.
d. most individuals move down the social class ladder during their lifetimes.
b. most people live their entire lives as members of a social class they were born into.
Wages earned, child support received, and interest payments are all examples of ______.
a. income
b. wealth
c. assets
d. tax receipts
a. income
Occupational prestige ratings
a. are subjective evaluations of the value of jobs.
b. are determined by the wealth of employer.
c. are not related to overall socioeconomic status.
d. are based on economic potential.
a. are subjective evaluations of the value of jobs.
In the United States, the upper class
a. is fairly large, as many people are able to achieve wealth.
b. holds only a small portion of the wealth and power in the country.
c. consists of families who have held wealth for generations, and nouveau riche.
d. have little power because the political system is a democracy.
c. consists of families who have held wealth for generations, and nouveau riche.
Most of the wealth represented by the Forbes 400 list of the wealthiest people and families in
the United States
a. has been earned in the oil industry.
b. is inherited.
c. belongs to major athletes.
d. is earned by an individual during their lifetime.
b. is inherited.
The Parkers are in the upper class and earned all their wealth in the last year from a very
successful business. The Parkers are considered part of the:
a. upper-upper class.
b. nouveau riche.
c. achieved class.
d. ascribed caste.
b. nouveau riche.
The urban underclass differs from others among the lower class in a number of ways. Which
of the following is not one of these reasons?
a. The urban underclass have no means of economic support.
b. The working poor are more likely to engage in illegal activities.
c. The urban underclass is very likely to be dependent on public assistance programs.
d. The urban underclass consists of mostly recent immigrants.
d. The urban underclass consists of mostly recent immigrants.
Sociologists who analyze class using a conflict perspective
a. see class basically as a continuum.
b. argue that class is a matter of what individuals possess in terms of prestige.
c. see class as defined by the relationship of to the larger system of production.
d. base their views on the early work of Emile Durkheim who pointed out the
dysfunctional consequences of division of labor.
c. see class as defined by the relationship of to the larger system of production.
Which of the following is false regarding social class in the United States?
a. Social classes are more polarized with the wealthy increasing their wealth.
b. Rising debt among the middle class has increased inequality between the classes.
c. The lower class has little power to control their working environment.
d. Tax policies favor the middle and lower classes.
d. Tax policies favor the middle and lower classes.
. About eighteen percent of Americans have zero or negative wealth, meaning
a. their debt exceeds their net worth.
b. their debt exceeds their annual income.
c. their tax burden is more than double their income.
d. their education debt exceeds their potential income.
a. their debt exceeds their net worth.
The perception that a class structure exists and the feeling of shared identification with others
in one's class is referred to as _____.
a. false consciousness
b. class consciousness
c. normative consciousness
d. stratified consciousness
b. class consciousness
What was the basis of the definitions of class identified by Karl Marx?
a. level of education
b. amount of net wealth
c. ownership of agricultural land
d. relationship to means of production
d. relationship to means of production
What is the primary difference between Marx's and Weber's views of social class?
a. Weber disagreed that classes were formed around economic issues.
b. Weber disagreed that economic forces are the primary basis for stratification.
c. Weber disagreed that there could be more than one dimension to stratification.
d. Weber did not believe that economic forces had any impact on other aspects of life.
b. Weber disagreed that economic forces are the primary basis for stratification.
Max Weber analyzed the connections between
a. the economic, social, and political dimensions of stratification.
b. class, race, and gender as the basis for social stratification.
c. cooperation, competition, and conflict as social processes effecting social mobility.
d. ability, ambition, and sponsorship as factors impacting on social mobility.
b. class, race, and gender as the basis for social stratification.
Which sociological theory argues that the elite shape societal beliefs and practices in order to
make their own privileges appear legitimate and fair?
a. Functionalism
b. Symbolic interaction
c. Conflict theory
d. Social exchange theory
c. Conflict theory
The poverty line refers to
a. the average hourly wage of the poorest workers in a society.
b. the minimum amount of money a household needs to be considered middle class.
c. the amount of money a family needs to be comfortable.
d. the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household, as
determined by the government.
d. the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household, as
determined by the government.
Which of the following groups represent the largest actual number of people in poverty?
a. White.
b. African American.
c. Hispanic.
d. Native American.
a. White.
The percentage of women and children living in poverty has been increasing. Sociologists
refer to this phenomenon as _____.
a. the gender gap
b. gendered poverty
c. the feminization of poverty
d. the Titanic phenomenon
c. the feminization of poverty
According to the text, _____ of families headed by women live below the poverty line.
a. one-fourth
b. one-third
c. one-half
d. two-thirds
b. one-third
The fastest growing segment of the homeless population is ______.
a. unemployed men
b. victims of domestic violence
c. single women
d. families
d. families
A popular perspective on poverty among policy makers is that poverty is caused by bad habits
and values. This perspective is called the _____.
a. culture of poverty perspective
b. value-stretch perspective
c. delinquent culture thesis
d. situational perspective
a. culture of poverty perspective
The most sociological explanations of poverty focus on
a. individual behavior.
b. the culture of the poor.
c. the social structure.
d. natural disasters.
c. the social structure.
Under the rules for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) there is a lifetime limit
of _____ years for people to receive welfare benefits.
a. two
b. five
c. eight
d. ten
b. five
. ____ is socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with being male and/or female.
a. Sexuality
b. Role playing
c. Gender
d. Sex
ANS: C
c. Gender
Which of the following statements is false?
a. Sex refers to biological identity, male or female.
b. Gender refers to the socially learned expectations and behaviors.
c. Gender is a more important concept to sociologists than sex.
d. The key sociological question is whether biology or culture is more important.
d. The key sociological question is whether biology or culture is more important.
According to the concept of biological determinism
a. the physiology of any person may be manipulated to alter that person's sex.
b. social behaviors are believed to be caused by physiological characteristics.
c. the creation of a male or female occurs as the egg meets the sperm.
d. the interplay of culture and biology is what makes shapes human behavior.
b. social behaviors are believed to be caused by physiological characteristics.
Biologically, the combination of an X and a Y chromosome establishes a person's sex as ___.
a. male
b. female
c. hermaphrodite
d. transgender
a. male
The condition of having mixed biological sex characteristics is called _____.
a. transgenderation
b. fetal sex differentiation
c. intersexed
d. bisexual variation
c. intersexed
The condition, generally been called hermaphroditism, is now often termed being _____.
a. transgendered
b. intersexed
c. transsexual
d. dichotomized
b. intersexed
Which of these statements is true?
a. Gender differences are the same in every culture.
b. All perceived differences between men and women are natural and biological.
c. For any given trait there's as much or more difference within a given gender group.
d. Social influences are not important in creating differences between men & women.
c. For any given trait there's as much or more difference within a given gender group.
Gender socialization
a. only affects men and women in their relationships with others.
b. is consistent and uniform for all men and women.
c. influences all aspects of society and daily life.
d. may be completely avoided if a person is conscious of it.
c. influences all aspects of society and daily life.
Gender identity has a strong impact on how one feels about one's appearance. Studies of
gender identity and body image have found that
a. among preschool children, girls have lower self-concept related to body image than boys do.
b. in early adolescence boys compare their bodies with others' of the same sex more than girls do.
c. by early adolescence girls have lower self-esteem than boys do, due to concerns about their appearance.
d. once men and women reach the stage of being in college they are equally likely to be dissatisfied with their bodies.
c. by early adolescence girls have lower self-esteem than boys do, due to concerns about their appearance.
Research on the impact of peer relationships on socialization have found that
a. for boys and girls peers reinforce age and racial norms as well as gender
expectations.
b. gender norms are applied more strictly to boys than to girls.
c. homophobia serves to reinforce gender norms.
d. All of these choices are true
d. All of these choices are true
Since the passage of Title IX in 1972
a. gender inequality in the schools has disappeared.
b. discrimination by schools on the basis of gender is illegal.
c. boys and girls receive the same treatment by teachers.
d. while treatment by teachers is still unequal, books now feature equal numbers of
boys and girls.
b. discrimination by schools on the basis of gender is illegal.
Research on race, gender and eating disorders, by Meg Lovejoy, found that
a. Black women are less likely than White women to engage in excessive dieting and
are less fearful of fat.
b. White women are much more satisfied with their bodies than originally thought.
c. Both Black and White women tend to overestimate their weight.
d. Black women do not suffer from eating disorders such as overeating.
a. Black women are less likely than White women to engage in excessive dieting and are less fearful of fat.
Gender conformity is an issue for:
a. Only females.
b. Only males.
c. Both males and females.
d. Neither males nor females.
c. Both males and females.
Machismo refers to:
a. reduced libido.
b. exaggerated masculinity.
c. male control over women.
d. racial oppression among Latino men.
b. exaggerated masculinity.
What is the sociological term for the hierarchical distribution of social and economic
resources according to gender?
a. gender apartheid
b. gender roles
c. gender stratification
d. gender assignation
c. gender stratification
The extreme exclusion of women from public life, practiced in Afghanistan under the Taliban
regime, is termed _____.
a. religious sexism
b. theological patriarchy
c. economic segregation
d. gender apartheid
d. gender apartheid
Gender stratification is supported by:
a. a belief that treats gender inequality as nature.
b. individual sexism, not institutional sexism
c. the matriarchal structure of our society.
d. norms and values encouraging gender equality.
a. a belief that treats gender inequality as nature.
Professional women experience a significant loss of income if they leave and reenter the
workforce after raising children. This has been termed ______.
a. the double shift
b. the mommy tax
c. double jeopardy
d. dual labor market
b. the mommy tax
The Minangkabau society in Indonesia is one where women have power over men. The
Minangkabau is an example of a/n _____ society.
a. sexist
b. apartheid
c. patriarchal
d. matriarchal
d. matriarchal
The labor force participation rate for White women
a. has only recently reached the rate for women of color.
b. has always been much higher than that of women of color.
c. has been stagnant for the past 50 years.
d. is significantly lower than that for women of color.
a. has only recently reached the rate for women of color
Human capital theory explains gender differences in wages
a. as created by the different occupations men and women work in.
b. by taking into consideration women's tendency to drop out of the workforce in
order to have children.
c. as the result of individual characteristics of workers.
d. as being overstated.
c. as the result of individual characteristics of workers.
Which of these theories explains wage inequality between men and women using the individual characteristics of workers?
a. human capital theory
b. dual labor market theory
c. both human capital theory and dual labor market theory
d. neither human capital theory or dual labor market theory
a. human capital theory
Today, women make up 97% of secretaries and 95% of child-care workers. This is evidence
of:
a. overt discrimination.
b. sex stratification.
c. patriarchy.
d. occupational segregation.
d. occupational segregation.
Which of the following is true regarding gender segregation?
a. Most women work in occupations that have roughly equal number of male and
female employees.
b. Men are concentrated in fewer occupations that women are.
c. Greater the concentration of women workers in an occupation, the lower the pay.
d. Legislation has had little effect on gender segregation.
c. Greater the concentration of women workers in an occupation, the lower the pay.
Functionalists have been criticized for
a. ignoring gender roles.
b. emphasizing symbols in their approach to the study of gender.
c. failing to see the merits of a conflict approach to the study of gender.
d. interpreting gender as a fixed role in society.
d. interpreting gender as a fixed role in society.
Gender is something that is accomplished through ongoing interactions. This process is
referred to as:
a. gender socialization.
b. overt gendering.
c. doing gender.
d. matriarchy.
c. doing gender.
From a ______ perspective, men have historically had the power to benefit from women's
labor and devalue women's work.
a. symbolic interactionist
b. conflict
c. functionalist
d. social exchange
b. conflict
Feminist theorists have focused on the ways in which gender is created and reinforced through
social interaction. This is an ethnomethodological perspective termed ______.
a. gender orientation
b. feminist interpretivism
c. institutionalized gender
d. "doing gender"
d. "doing gender"
Which of these is a criticism of the feminist perspective of "doing gender"?
a. It ignores that gender-based power and economic differences exist in society.
b. It focuses too much on race and class-based gender differences.
c. It does not allow for social change.
d. It encourages radical changes within society.
a. It ignores that gender-based power and economic differences exist in society.
Anita believes that the oppression of women is based on the capitalist economy. Anita is a:
a. liberal feminist
b. functionalist
c. conflict theorist
d. socialist feminist
d. socialist feminist
Throughout the world, where women are increasingly working as paid laborers,
a. the division of household chores is usually equal between men and women.
b. they do not do as much unpaid labor as men.
c. they still do most of the work associated with home, children, and the elderly.
d. they still do not make a significant contribution to the global economy.
c. they still do most of the work associated with home, children, and the elderly.
The U N estimates that the value of women's unpaid work amounts to at least _____.
a. $800 billion
b. $11 trillion
c. $50 billion
d. $140 trillion
b. $11 trillion
According to the United Nations, violence against women worldwide
a. is an epidemic and one of the most pervasive violations of human rights.
b. is difficult to document accurately in terms of the incidence.
c. has been mostly perpetrated by an intimate partner or family member.
d. All of these choices are true.
d. All of these choices are true.
A pattern of relationships that define people's family relationships to one another is the
definition of a(n) _____.
a. institution
b. relational network
c. kinship system
d. social organization
c. kinship system
Within the U.S., polygamy
a. is widely practiced among Mormons.
b. is illegal.
c. is legal for some Native American groups.
d. does not exist.
b. is illegal.
What is the general pattern for marriage within the U.S.?
a. Marriages are across social classes as often as within the same social class.
b. Most people marry someone who shares similar social characteristics.
c. Americans marry without regard to race or class.
d. People in the U.S. tend to marry people who are smart and intelligent.
b. Most people marry someone who shares similar social characteristics.
In the United States, interracial marriage is:
a. illegal.
b. decline for all social groups.
c. increasing, but infrequent.
d. common among the lower classes only.
c. increasing, but infrequent.
Betty lives with her husband, daughters, and her grandchildren. She lives in a/n _____ family.
a. matrilineal
b. extended
c. nuclear
d. patrilocal
b. extended
Julia is a very close family friend, considered to be part of the family. She may be considered
a. an othermother.
b. compadrazgo.
c. fictive kin.
d. extended family.
c. fictive kin.
Prior to industrialization,
a. the nuclear family was the cultural ideal in the U.S.
b. the household was the center for production and distribution of goods.
c. men were responsible for economic life and women were for domestic life.
d. men worked in wage labor outside the home, and women and children at home.
b. the household was the center for production and distribution of goods.
The emergency of the nuclear family in the United States was a result of which major event?
a. The American Revolution
b. The Industrial Revolution
c. The Civil Rights Movement
d. World War II
b. The Industrial Revolution
Historically, family structure in the U.S.
a. has been essentially the same for all social classes and racial-ethnic groups.
b. has remained strongly nuclear, despite varying social conditions.
c. has been shaped by slavery, migration, poverty, and laws.
d. has been unaffected by public policies.
c. has been shaped by slavery, migration, poverty, and laws.
_____ families may find it necessary to have all family members working.
a. Migrant
b. Poor
c. Extended
d. Fictive
b. Poor
_____ state that families create stability by teaching people the norms and values of society.
a. Functionalists
b. Conflict theorists
c. Symbolic interactionists
d. Exchange theorists
a. Functionalists
During rapid social change, families experience social disorganization and this creates social
problems. This is part of the _____ view of families.
a. functionalist
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionist
d. exchange theory
a. functionalist
As per _____, the family as an institution reinforces and supports power relations in society.
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. exchange theory
b. conflict theory
According to functionalists, families serve all of the following basic social needs, except:
a. socializing the young.
b. providing education to members.
c. providing physical care for members.
d. regulating sexual activities.
b. providing education to members.
_____ theorists view families as essential to maintaining inequality in society.
a. Functionalist
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic interaction
d. Social exchange
b. Conflict
_____ theorists argue that families serve to socialize children into being obedient workers and
good consumers to fit the needs of capitalism.
a. Functionalist
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic interaction
d. Social exchange
b. Conflict
The theoretical perspective that is most concerned with the fact that families are gendered
institutions that reflect the gender hierarchies in society is _____.
a. functionalism
b. exchange theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. feminist theory
d. feminist theory
In addition to the high divorce rate, the other primary cause of female single-parent
households is
a. the high rate of pregnancy among unmarried teens.
b. the death of a spouse.
c. having a spouse who is incarcerated.
d. the high unemployment rates for men.
a. the high rate of pregnancy among unmarried teens.
The number of single-father households is _____ and are _____ likely than single-mother
families to experience severe economic problems.
a. increasing; more
b. increasing; less
c. decreasing; more
d. decreasing; less
b. increasing; less
Research on cohabitation has found that
a. the likelihood of cohabitation is greatest among suburban residents.
b. couples who cohabited prior to marriage have lower levels of marital quality than
couples who did not.
c. cohabiting is decreasing as younger people are returning to traditional values.
d. few cohabiting households have children.
b. couples who cohabited prior to marriage have lower levels of marital quality than couples who did not.
An individual's ability to influence decision-making within a marriage is largely established
through:
a. social class.
b. religion.
c. the length of the marriage.
d. the amount of money one earns.
d. the amount of money one earns.
In the U.S.
a. the rate of marriage is higher than in western European countries.
b. one out of two marriages ends in divorce.
c. women are more likely to remarry following a divorce than are men.
d. the divorce rate has been steadily increasing since the 1950s.
a. the rate of marriage is higher than in western European countries.
The likelihood of divorce is greater for couples who
a. marry young.
b. have two incomes.
c. do not have children.
d. are White.
a. marry young.
Which of these statements does not describe one of the functions of religion?
a. Religion establishes norms for behavior.
b. Religion establishes moral proscriptions for behavior.
c. Religion serves to preserve diversity and cultural relativism.
d. Religion provides answers to questions of ultimate meaning.
c. Religion serves to preserve diversity and cultural relativism.
According to the text, what proportion of Americans believes that religion can solve all or
most of society's problems?
a. one-fifth
b. one-fourth
c. one-half
d. two-thirds
d. two-thirds
What is the relationship between Christianity and governance within the U.S.?
a. The U.S. effectively separates all religion from government.
b. In the U.S. Christianity is often treated as if it is the national religion.
c. The U.S. incorporates holidays of all faiths equally into its public observances.
d. The government of the U.S. prohibits religions other than Christianity.
b. In the U.S. Christianity is often treated as if it is the national religion.
Religiosity is measured by sociologists using all of the following, except
a. by asking about people's religious beliefs
b. surveying people about their membership in religious organizations
c. asking how often people attend religious services
d. collecting information through the Census.
d. collecting information through the Census.
Church membership and attendance in the U.S.
a. is higher for men than for women.
b. is higher for younger people than for older people.
c. is higher for women than for men, and for older more than younger people.
d. is fairly uniformly spread throughout the population.
c. is higher for women than for men, and for older more than younger people.
What term did Durkheim give to the body of religious beliefs that give people a sense of
belonging?
a. false consciousness
b. collective consciousness
c. ritualized consciousness
d. interactive identity
b. collective consciousness
To _____, religion promotes stratification since it generally supports a hierarchy of people on
earth and the subordination of humankind to an imagined divine authority.
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkheim
c. Karl Marx
d. Max Weber
c. Karl Marx
_____ theory sees religion as a socially constructed belief system that emerges in different
social conditions.
a. Functionalist
b. Conflict
c. Symbolic interaction
d. Feminist
c. Symbolic interaction
In the U.S., social factors are correlated with religious identification. For example,
a. older people are more likely than younger people to express no religious preference.
b. those in higher income brackets are most likely to identify as Jewish or Catholic
than those in the lower income brackets.
c. fundamentalist Protestants are most like to have the highest incomes.
d. Asian-Americans are the most likely racial-ethnic group to say that religion is very
important in their lives.
b. those in higher income brackets are most likely to identify as Jewish or Catholic
than those in the lower income brackets.
Which of the following is not a role of the state?
a. To pass legislation determining the rights and privileges of members of society.
b. To resolve conflicts within society.
c. To protect the sovereignty of the nation.
d. To censor public opinion.
d. To censor public opinion.
The state
a. is made up of government, the police, the military, and the legal system.
b. is an individual unit, separate from the police and the military.
c. is only made up of government and the legal system.
d. cannot be described.
a. is made up of government, the police, the military, and the legal system.
According to the text, nationalism is
a. most often a positive force in the world.
b. generally accompanied by cultural relativism.
c. often a dominant force in world affairs.
d. prominent in industrial nations.
c. often a dominant force in world affairs.
What type of authority do the police and courts in society have?
a. traditional
b. charismatic
c. rational-legal
d. expertise-based
c. rational-legal
The leaders of cults most often exemplify _____ authority.
a. traditional
b. charismatic
c. rational-legal
d. expertise-based
b. charismatic
Power is defined by sociologists as
a. the perception by others of legitimate and formal authority.
b. authority that stems from rules and regulations.
c. the ability to control others.
d. a hierarchy of authority.
c. the ability to control others.
According to the _____ model of state power, political power is diffused broadly throughout
society and derives from the activities of interest groups.
a. pluralist
b. power elite
c. autonomous state
d. feminist theory
a. pluralist
In the United States, groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) have an impact on what legislation is created. This
process is an example of _____,
a. the power elite model
b. the authoritarian model
c. the pluralist model
d. the autonomous state model
c. the pluralist model
The _____ model sees the state as representing the interests of a small, but economically
dominant, class.
a. pluralism
b. power elite
c. autonomous state
d. feminist theory
b. power elite
Mills' concept of power elite includes all of the following areas, except:
a. the economy.
b. the military.
c. the government.
d. the courts.
d. the courts.
The current U.S. government is an example of
a. the pluralist model.
b. the power elite.
c. an autonomous state.
d. a populist.
c. an autonomous state.
According to autonomous state theory, the state is
a. an administrative organization.
b. a dominant group.
c. an elaborate system of power elites.
d. a military-style apparatus.
a. an administrative organization.
Applying the _____ model of state power, it could be argued that the dominant values of the
state are masculine.
a. pluralism
b. power elite
c. autonomous state
d. feminist theory
d. feminist theory
How do voting patterns in the U.S. compare with those of other democratic countries?
a. The U.S. has one of the highest voter turnouts of any democratic country.
b. The U.S. has one of the lowest voter turnouts of any democratic country.
c. All democratic nations have roughly the same percentage of voters for any given
election.
d. The U.S. does not keep statistics on the percentage of the population voting in a
given election.
b. The U.S. has one of the lowest voter turnouts of any democratic country.
Which of these groups is disproportionately Republican?
a. African Americans
b. Puerto Rican Americans
c. Cuban Americans
d. Mexican Americans
c. Cuban Americans
In general, how do women's political attitudes and behavior differ from men's?
a. Women tend to be more socially conservative.
b. Men are more likely to vote Democrat than are women.
c. Women tend to have more liberal views than men.
d. Men are more likely to vote than women are.
c. Women tend to have more liberal views than men.
The largest contributors to political campaigns are typically _____, and the funds generally go
to support incumbents.
a. political action committees (PACs)
b. many different people from the general population
c. major corporations
d. the national committees of Democrats and Republicans
a. political action committees (PACs)
Military socialization places a high premium on _____.
a. individuality
b. conformity
c. creativity
d. resourcefulness
b. conformity
Critics of the privatization of the military argue that
a. it may lure the best talent away from the traditional military if they make more
money through private military employment.
b. privatization is much less efficient than retaining all functions within the
government funded military.
c. privatization means that new recruits will not have any positions open to them
within the military.
d. it may reward conflict over consensus.
a. it may lure the best talent away from the traditional military if they make more money through private military employment.
The greatest change in recent years in the military as a social institution is
a. the inclusion of college-level coursework as part of basic training.
b. the increase in the representation of racial minority groups and women in the armed
services.
c. the increase in the percentage of volunteer recruits that make the military a career.
d. its termination of the previous strong connection that existed between the military
and corporate America.
b. the increase in the representation of racial minority groups and women in the armed
services.
The branch of the military with the highest percentage of female enlisted personnel is _____.
a. the Army
b. the Navy
c. the Marines
d. the Air Force
d. the Air Force
According to research done for the Pentagon, _____ of women in the military have
experienced sexual harassment, including sexual coercion.
a. one-fifth
b. one-quarter
c. one-third
d. one-half
c. one-third
While work and making a living are related to all of society's institutions, they are particularly
deeply embedded in the social institution of _____.
a. government
b. the economy
c. religion
d. the family
b. the economy
Which of the following is not a characteristic of capitalism?
a. ownership of basic industries
b. market competition
c. pursuit of profit
d. private property
a. ownership of basic industries
The system characterized by state ownership and management of the base industries is called
_____.
a. capitalism
b. communism
c. socialism
d. postindustrialism
c. socialism
Globally, most of the work involving the assembly of goods is done by _____.
a. men
b. Americans
c. workers in more developed nations
d. women and children
d. women and children
Fear and hatred of foreigners is called _____.
a. arachnophobia
b. cultural relativism
c. xenophobia
d. anglophilia
c. xenophobia
The term deindustrialization refers to that fact that
a. goods are no longer being produced in the U.S.
b. fewer workers in the U.S. are required to produce goods.
c. production using computer technologies will replace service industries.
d. the work force is becoming more diverse.
b. fewer workers in the U.S. are required to produce goods.
Cashiers have come to rely on electronic cash registers to tell them how much change to
return to a customer. Sociologists refer to this as _____.
a. routinization
b. deskilling
c. deindustrialization
d. the service economy
b. deskilling
Which of these is the best example of a contingent worker?
a. Someone in a developing country working in manufacturing.
b. A person in the U.S. making their living as a substitute teacher.
c. A full-time bank employee.
d. A university professor.
b. A person in the U.S. making their living as a substitute teacher.
Sociologists define work as
a. participation in any activity that increases the gross domestic product.
b. human activity that is paid either by hourly wage or salary.
c. productive activity that creates something of value, goods or services.
d. human activity in the public sphere.
c. productive activity that creates something of value, goods or services.
In the U.S., the class-based division of labor is correlated most closely with _____.
a. age
b. sex
c. race
d. education
d. education
_____ theorists look to the class division of labor as the source of unequal rewards that
workers receive for their work.
a. Symbolic interaction
b. Conflict
c. Functionalist
d. Feminist
b. Conflict
The unemployment rate is defined as
a. the number of people not working for pay.
b. the percent of workers who are not making as much as they want to.
c. the number of jobless people.
d. the percent of those not working but looking for work.
d. the percent of those not working but looking for work.
. When explaining unemployment, sociologists are likely to argue that
a. women and minorities are taking away jobs from White men.
b. the major causes of unemployment are related to structural problems in the
economy.
c. unemployment is caused by the failings of individual workers.
d. the unemployed do not try very hard to find employment.
b. the major causes of unemployment are related to structural problems in the
economy.
The _____ is a popular concept that refers to the limits that women and minorities experience
in job mobility.
a. glass escalator
b. glass ceiling
c. glass floor
d. glass elevator
b. glass ceiling
The Americans with Disabilities Act, adopted by Congress in 1990, does all of the following,
except
a. requires employers to provide "reasonable accommodation" on the job.
b. prohibits discrimination against disabled people in employment.
c. applies to state and local governments.
d. requires equal pay among all workers.
d. requires equal pay among all workers.