raised by animals
walk on all fours
Language is the key to
people have no mechanism for developing thought and communicating their experiences
no shared way of ife
culture is the key to
what people become
High Intelligence depends on
early, close relations
skeels and dye discovered
orphanges that did not stimulate social interaction affected a childs ability to develop social skills
around age 13 children aren't able to
receive enough socialization to help them develop normally
Rhesus monkey experiments demonstrate
the importance of early socialization and consequence of isolation being the inability to socialize with other monkeys
process by which we learn the ways of society
cooley notes that
our sense of self develops from interaction with others
begins at childhood its development is an ongoing lifelong process
individuals who significantly influence our lives, such as parents or siblings
to take the role of others
is to put ourselves in someone else's shoes to understand how someone else feels and thinks and to anticipate how that person will act
to our perception of how people in general think of us
we mimic others
pretend to take the role of specific others
capable of playin multiple roles
imitation- children under age 3 no sense of self imitate others
play- ages 3-6 play pretend others
team games- age 6-7 organized play
understanding limited t direct contact
we develop the ability to use symbols
concrete operational stage
reasoning abilities remain concrete
formal operational stage
capable of abstract thinking
balance of the id and demands of society
our conscience, our culture within us
the notion that subconscious motivations are the primary reason for behavior
is that our morality begins at childbirth and we are amoral. Then preconventional stage, in which we have learned rules and the need to follow them. Then conventional stage, in which we follow the norms and values we learned. Then postconventional stage, in which we reflect on abstract principles of right and wrong.
criticisms of kohlberg
only studied boys, and most societies do not have postconventional stage.
cultural relativity of mortality
As languages differ around the world, so do moralities. When people violate whatever morality they have learned, it arouses the emotions of guilt and shame.
not only how we express our emotions but also what emotions we feel. Socialization into emotions is one of the means by which society produces conformity.
six basic emotions
anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise.
The ways in which we express our emotions are culturally determined: social class, gender, our culture, the setting can all affect if and how we express ourselves.
the effects of socialization on our emotions go much deeper than guiding how, where, and when we express our feelings. Socialization also affects what we feel.
The ways in which we express our emotions
are culturally determined: social class, gender, our culture, the setting can all affect if and how we express ourselves. Your social mirror, then—the result of your being socialized into a self and emotions—sets up effective internal controls over your behavior.
a set of learned expectations about how we should behave because we are identified as male or female.
The process of learning our gender is socialization
are the first to introduce us to the gender map. Sometimes they do this consciously, perhaps by bringing into play pink and blue, colors that have no meaning in themselves but that are now associated with gender.
toys and play
On the basis of our sex, our parents give us different kinds of toys.
gay and lesbian parents
In their play, the children of lesbian couples and gay male couples show less gender stereotyping. That is, the boys show more behaviors that are traditionally considered feminine, and the girls more behaviors that are traditionally considered masculine.
One of the most powerful sources of influence is the peer group, individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests.
In northern Albania some women become
men. They are neither transsexuals nor lesbians. Nor do they have a sex change operation, something which is unknown in those parts. This custom, which goes back centuries, is a practical matter, a way to protect and support the family.
major guide to gender map
is the mass media, forms of communication that are directed to large audiences.
key part of gender
is body image, and the mass media are effective in teaching us what we "should" look like. While girls are presented as more powerful than they used to be, they have to be skinny and gorgeous and wear the latest fashions.
how video games portray the sexes
, but we know little about their influence on the players' ideas of gender. The message of male dominance continues, as females are even more underrepresented in video games than on television: 90 percent of the main characters are male.
of gender. If you are average, you are exposed to a blistering 200,000 commercials a year.
agents of socialization
main concern of working class parents
is that their children stay out of trouble. To keep them in line, they tend to use physical punishment. Middle-class parents, in contrast, focus more on developing their children's curiosity, self-expression, and self-control. They are more likely to reason with their children than to punish them physically.
working class parents see their children a being like wildflowers
wildflowers—they develop naturally. Since the child's development will take care of itself, good parenting primarily means providing food, shelter, and comfort. These parents set limits on their children's play ("Don't go near the railroad tracks") and let them play as they wish. To middle-class parents, in contrast, children are like tender houseplants—they need a lot of guidance to develop correctly. These parents want their children's play to accomplish something. They may want them to play baseball, for example, not for the enjoyment of the sport but to help them learn how to be team players.
Some neighborhoods are better than others for children. Parents try to move to the better neighborhoods—if they can afford them. Their commonsense evaluations are borne out by sociological research. Children from poor neighborhoods are more likely to get in trouble with the law, to become pregnant, to drop out of school, and even to have worse mental health.
Religious ideas so pervade U.S. society that they provide the foundation of morality for both the religious and the nonreligious.
Through their participation in religious services, people learn doctrines, values, and morality, but the effects of religion on their lives go far beyond this.
Children who spend more time in day care have weaker bonds with their mothers and are less affectionate toward them. They are also less cooperative with others and more likely to fight and to be "mean."
Manifest function, or intended purpose, of formal education is to teach knowledge and skills, such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. Schools also have latent functions, unintended consequences that help the social system.
Sociologists have also identified a hidden curriculum in our schools. This term refers to values that, although not taught explicitly, are part of a school's "cultural message."
There is also a corridor curriculum, what students teach one another outside the classroom. Unfortunately, the corridor curriculum seems to emphasize racism, sexism, illicit ways to make money, and coolness.
One of the most significant aspects of education is that it exposes children to peer groups that help children resist the efforts of parents and schools to socialize them.
The standards of our peer groups tend to dominate our lives. If your peers, for example, listen to rap, Nortec, death metal, rock and roll, country, or gospel, it is almost inevitable that you also prefer that kind of music. In high school, if your friends take math courses, you probably do, too.
From the people we rub shoulders with at work, we learn not only a set of skills but also perspectives on the world.
Most of us eventually become committed to some particular type of work, often after trying out many jobs. This may involve anticipatory socialization, learning to play a role before entering it.
learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors to match a person's new situation in life. In its most common form, resocialization occurs each time we learn something contrary to our previous experiences. A new boss who insists on a different way of doing things is resocializing you.
most resocialization is mild
only a slight modification of things we have already learned. Resocialization can also be intense in a total institution: a place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and where they come under almost total control of the officials who are in charge. Examples include boot camps, prisons, concentration camps, convents, some religious cults, and some military schools.
an attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual's current identity and stamping a new one in its place.
Until about 1900, having children work like adults was common around the world. Even today, children in the Least Industrialized Nations work in many occupations—from blacksmiths to waiters.
Three hundred years ago, parents and teachers considered it their moral duty to terrorize children. To keep children from "going bad," they would frighten them with bedtime stories of death and hellfire.
transformed the way we perceive children. Today we view children as needing gentle guidance if they are to develop emotionally, intellectually, morally, even physically. We take our view for granted—after all, it is only "common sense."
Adolescence is a social invention, not a "natural" age division. In earlier centuries, people simply moved from childhood to young adulthood, with no stopover in between. The Industrial Revolution allowed adolescence to be invented.
To mark the passage of children into adulthood, tribal societies hold initiation rites. This grounds the self-identity.
Postindustrial societies are adding another period of extended youth to the life course, which sociologists call transitional adulthood (also known as adultolescence).
early middle years
, most people are more sure of themselves and of their goals in life.
later middle years
health issues and mortality begin to loom large as people feel their bodies change, especially if they watch their parents become frail, fall ill, and die. The consequence is a fundamental reorientation in thinking—from time since birth to time left to live.
transitional older years
Today, people who enjoy good health don't think of their 60s as old age but as an extension of their middle years. This change is so recent that a new stage of life seems to be evolving, the period between retirement (averaging about 63) and old age—which people are increasingly coming to see as beginning around age 75.
later older years
is a stage marked by growing frailty and illness. For all who reach this stage, it is ended by death.
vitally important for what you experience in life. Your social location, such as your social class, gender, and race-ethnicity, is also highly significant for your life course.
we are not robots
we are indivduals
Although socialization is powerful and affects all of us profoundly, we have a self. Established in childhood and continually modified by later experience, our self is dynamic.
Rather than being passive sponges in this process, each of us is actively involved in the construction of the self.