Socialization
The lifelong social experiences by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
Personality
A person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
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id
Freud's term for the human being's basic drives
Ego
Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate (natural) pleasures - seeking drives with the demands of society
Superego
Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
Preoperational Stage
Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
Concrete Operational Stage
Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings
Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
Self
George Herbert Mead's term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
Looking-glass self
Charles Horton Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
Significant Others
People, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
Generalized other
Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
Peer Group
A social group whose members have interests, social positions, and age in common
Anticipatory Socialization
Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
Mass media
The means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience
Gerontology
The study of aging and the elderly
Gerontocracy
A form of social organization in which the elderly have the most wealth, power, and prestige
Ageism
Prejudice and discrimination against older people
Cohort
A category of people with something in common, usually age
Total Institution
A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and controlled by an administrative staff
Resocialization
Radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment
Without social experience, a child never develops personality
Kingsley Davis's study of Anna, the girl isolated for five years, shows that
It is human nature to nurture
Most sociologists take the position that
Moral reasoning
Lawrence Kohlberg explored socialization by studying
girls and boys typically use different standards in deciding what is right and wrong
Carol Gilligan added to Kohlberg's findings by showing that
the part of the human personality made up of self-awareness and self-image
The "self," said George Herbert Mead, is
Family members provide necessary care for infants and children, families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion, and parents greatly affect a child's self concept
Why is family so important to the socialization process?
Obedience
Compared to higher-income parents, lower-income parents are more likely to emphasize which of the following?
Rich societies extend childhood much longer than poor societies do
In global perspective, which statement about childhood is correct?
less socially important than young adults
Modern, high-income societies typically define people in old age as
to radically change a person's personality or behavior
According to Erving Goffman, the purpose of a total institution is
Social Interaction
the process by which people act and react in relation to others
Status
a social position that a person holds
Status set
All the statuses a person holds at a given time
Ascribed Status
A social position a person received at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life
Status
Which term defines who and what we are in relation to others?
Occupation, physical or mental disability, and race or color
In U.S. Society, which of the following is often a master status?
a number of roles attached to a single status
Role set refers to
Role conflict
Frank excels at football at his college, but he doesn't have enough time to study as much as he wants to. This problem is an example of