A) Read the paragraphs about a successful advertising campaign. Circle the simple past or past progressive form of the verbs. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. In the years after World War II, the U. S. government (1) promoted  was promoting milk as a health product. In the 1960s, however, soft-drink companies began to market their products very aggressively. As a result, people (2) soon drank / were soon drinking more soft drinks and less milk. The California Milk Advisory Board (CMAB) realized that the old health-focused advertising (3) didn't work / wasn't working.

Beginning in the mid-1970s, milk sales (4) went / were going down in the United States, and the CMAB (5) decided / was deciding to do something to increase sales. The CMAB members (6) learned / were learning that the majority of people believed that milk was good for them, but they weren’t drinking it. In 1993, a new board was formed, the California Milk Processor Board (MilkPEP). This new board (7) hired were hiring an advertising agency to design a new advertisement for milk. The agency (8) designed were designing a very original ad.

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The ad showed a person eating something sweet or sticky (like cake or peanut butter). The ad was funny because the person really needed milk to drink, but he or she didn’t have it. This (9) became  was becoming the very successful “Got milk? ” campaign. In 1994, milk sales (10) increased  were increasing by over 10 million gallons a year. This was a clear indication that the new campaign was a success. Time Clauses with After, Before, Once, and When.

B) Read the sentences about marketing milk. Circle the time words. Underline the time clauses.

Label the earlier event with 1 and the later event with 2. 1. After World War II ended, the milk companies in the United States wanted people to drink milk. They marketed milk as a health drink. 2. People drank more milk than soft drinks before soft-drink companies started marketing their drinks as “fun. ” 3. When soft-drink companies began marketing their drinks as “fun,” the California Milk Advisory Board (CMAB) realized it needed to market milk differently. 4. The CMAB learned that people thought milk was boring after the board completed its market research.

5.When the CMAB discovered that 70 percent of Californians already drank milk, it decided to create a campaign to persuade them to drink more milk. 6. Before it started a new ad campaign, the new California Milk Processor Board, MilkPEP, learned that most people drink milk at home with foods like cookies and cake. 7. When the new milk ads appeared, they immediately became famous. 8. MilkPEP created a successful Spanish-language milk ad once it had success with the “Got milk? ” campaign. Time Clauses with Before, As Soon As, Until, While.

C) Read the facts about the history of advertising.

Combine the sentences with the time words in parentheses. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1. First event: Advertising already existed in Europe. Second event: Europeans came to the Americas in the 1400s. (before) Before Europeans came to the Americas in the 1400s, advertising already existed in Europe. Advertising already existed in Europe beforeEuropeans came to the Americas in the 1400s. 2. First event: Europeans were exploring the world from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Second event: They found new and interesting kinds of food and spices