Homer and Robert Fagles. The Iliad. New York, N. Y. : Penguin, 1990. Print. A. The title relates to the story literally, because the word “Iliad” means “poem about ilium”, and ilium is an alternate name for Troy which is where the Iliad took place. The story is told in 3rd person omniscient because he has access to every character’s mind and he frequently gives insight into the thoughts and feelings of even minor characters, gods and mortals alike. The narrator also asks for the help of the muse of epic poetry to help him tell the story.
The narrator is unreliable because we don’t even know if he actually existed. III. Setting A. The Iliad takes place around the twelfth or thirteenth century B. C and it begins nine years after the start of the Trojan War. The Iliad takes place at Troy and kingdoms of Greece. IV. Characters A. The protagonist is Achilles. Achilles is a dynamic and round character. Achilles is the son of Peleus and Thetis, grandson of Aeacus, commander of the Myrmidons, Achaean allies. B. The antagonists are fate/destiny, Hector, and the intervention of the gods.
Achilles’ fate was to die, if he fought the Trojans. Hector killed Patroclus (Achilles’ best friend) which brought Achilles into the war, and he cursed Achilles before dying. The intervention of the gods pretty caused the war and all of its chaos. C. Aphrodite- goddess of love, daughter of Zeus and Dione, mother of Aeneas. Sides with Trojans. D. Apollo- god, son of Zeus and Leto, twin of Artemis, a patron of the arts, especially music and poetry. Also an archer-”lord of the silver bow”-and a prophet with a famous oracular shrine at Delphi, in central Greece.
The principal divine champion of the Trojans. E. Ares- god of war, son of Zeus and Hera, one the Trojan's chief protectors. F. Artemis- goddess of the hunt, daughter of Zeus and Leto, sister of Apollo. G. Athena- or Pallas Athena, goddess, also called Tritogenia or Third-born of the Gods, daughter of Zeus, and defender of the Achaeans. A patron of human ingenuity and resourcefulness, whether exemplified by handicrafts, such as spinning, or by skill in human relations, such as that possessed by Odysseus, her favorite among the Greeks. Zeus’s favorite daughter.
Sides with Achaeans. H. Hera- goddess, daughter of Cronus and Rhea, wife and sister of Zeus, defender of the Achaeans I. Thetis- sea- goddess, daughter of Nereus, married to Peleus and by him the mother of Achilles J. Zeus- king of the gods, son of Cronus and Rhea, brother and husband of Hera, father of the Olympians and many mortals too. His spheres include the sky and the weather, hospitality and the rights of guests, the punishment of injustice, the sending of omens, and the governance of the universe, controlled to some extent by Fate as well.
Helps the Trojans. K. Poseidon- god of the sea, son of Cronus and Rhea, younger brother of Zeus. Switches between Acheans and Trojans. L. Agamemnon- Achaean, king of Mycenae, son of Atreus, husband of Clytemnestra, brother of Menelaus, supreme commander of all Achaea's armies and leader of the largest Achaean contingent. M. Ajax- Achaean, son of Telamon, Telamonian or Great Ajax, commander of the contingent from Salamis N. Calchas- prophet of the Achaeans, son of Thestor O. Diomedes- Achaean, son of Tydeus, king of Argos P.
Helen- daughter of Zeus, wife of Menelaus, consort of Paris, her abduction by him from Sparta the cause of the Trojan War Q. Menelaus- Achaean, son of Atreaus, king of Lacedaemon, brother of Agamemnon, husband of Helen R. Nestor- Achaean, son of Neleus, king of the Pylians, father of Antilochus and Thrasymedes, the oldest of the Achaean chieftains S. Odysseus- Achaean, son of Laertes, father of Telemachus, warlord of Ithaca and the surrounding islands T. Patroclus- Achaean, son of Menoetius, brother-in-arms of Achilles, killed by Hector U.
Phoenix- son of Amyntor, tutor and comrade of Achilles V. Priam- king of Troy, son of Laomedon of the line of Dardanus. Father of Hector and Paris W. Paris- Trojan, son of Priam and Hecuba, who abducted Helen from Menelaus in Lacedaemon X. Hector- Trojan, son of Priam and Hecuba, supreme commander of the Trojans Y. Chryseis- daughter of Chryses, captive of Agamemnon Z. Chryses- priest of Apollo, father of Chryseis AA. Briseis- daughter of Briseus, captive of Achilles BB. *Aeneas- Trojan, son of Anchises and Aphrodite, commander of the Dardanians and the future king of the Trojans CC.
Andromache- daughter of Eetion, wife of Hector V. Conflicts A. The main conflict is that Agamemnon’s demand for Achilles’ war prize, the maiden Briseis, enrages Achilles causing him to refuse to fight, which causes the Achaeans to suffer greatly in their battle against the Trojans. B. The internal conflict is Achilles’ pride and honor which is trashed when Agamemnon takes Achilles’ prize. C. The external conflict would be Achilles’ death. VI. Plot A. Exposition: The exposition of the Iliad is the argument between Achilles and Agamemnon and Achilles withdrawal from the war.
B. Rising Action: The rising action is Hector’s assault on the Achaean ships which the return of Patroclus to fight and his death, which will lead to Achilles’ return. C. Climax: The climax of the Iliad is Achilles’ return to war, which turns the tide against the Trojans and ensures the fated fall of Troy to which the narrator has mentioned throughout the poem. D. Falling Action: The falling action is the retreat of the Trojan army; Achilles’ revenge on Hector; the Achaeans’ desecration of Hector’s corpse.
VII. Themes A. Themes in the Iliad would be: Wrath, Friendships, Pride, and fate. B. Evidence of these themes would be Achilles because he is filled with wrath and pride and that leads him to make dumb choices. Friendship is shown between Patroclus and Achilles’ because that friendship leads Achilles to return to fight and avenge Patroclus’ death. Fate is shown throughout the book with many characters who are destined to die at some point, during the war. C. Some symbols include: