Alzheimer's disease (AD)
An chronic organic brain syndrome characterized by gradual loss of memory, decline in intellectual ability, and deterioration of personality
Anterograde amnesia
The inability of form new memories after a brain injury; forward-acting amnesia
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chunking
The process of grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit (or chunk) on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle
consolidation
The process by which neural changes associated with recent learning become durable and stable
constructive process
The process of organizing and shaping information during processing storage and retrieval of memories
distributed practice
A study technique in which practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods
elaborative rehearsal
A technique for improving memory by linking new information to previously stored material; also known as levels of processing
encoding
The process by which a mental representation is formed in memory
encoding, storage, and retrieval model
A memory model which suggests that memory is formed through three processes, encoding sotrage, and retreival
encoding-specificity principle
The principle that retrieval of information is improved if cues recieved at the time of recall are cosistent with those present at time of encoding
episodic memory
A subsystem of long-term memory that stores autobiographical events and the contexts in which they occurred; a mental diary of a person's life
explicit/declarative memory
A subsystem within long-term memory that consciously stores facts, information, and personal life experiences
flashbulb memory
A recall of vivid, detailed, and near-permanent images associated with surprising or strongly emotional events; it may or may not be accurate
implicit/nondeclarative memory
A subsystem within long-term memory that unconsciously stores procedural skills and simple classically conditioned responses
Long-term memory
The third stage of memory, which stores information for long periods of time; the capacity is virtually limitless, and the duration is relatively permanent
long-term potentiation
A long-lasting increase in neural excitability, which may be a biological mechanism for learning and memory
maintenance rehearsal
The memory-improvement technique of repeating information over and over to maintain it in short-term memory
massed practice
A study technique in which time spend learning is grouped into long, unbroken intervals; also known as cramming
memory
The internal record or representation of some prior event or experience; the mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information
misinformation effect
a memory distortion that results from misleading post-event information
mneumonic
A strategy or device that uses familiar information during the encoding of new information to enhance subsequent access to the information in memory
priming
A process in which a prior exposure to a stimulus (or prime) facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when one has new conscious memory of the initial learning and storage
proactive interfearance
A memory error in which old information interferes with remembering new information; it is forward-acting interfearance
retrieval
The recovery of information form memory storage
retrieval cue
A prompt or stimulus that aids recall or retrieval of a stored piece of information from long-term memory
retroactive interfearance
A memory error in which new information interferes with remembering new information; it is backward-acting interference
retrograde amnesia
The loss of memory for events before a brain injury; backward-acting amnesia
semantic memory
A subsystem of long-term memory that stores general knowledge; a mental encyclopedia or dictionary
sensory memory
The initial memory stage, which hold sensory information; it has relatively large capacity but the duration is only a few seconds
serial-position effect
A characteristic of memory retrieval in which information at the beginning and end of a series is remembered better than material in the middle
short-term memory
The second memory stage, which temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory; its capacity is limited to five to nine items and it has a duration of about 30 seconds
sleeper effect
A memory error in which information from an unreliable source that was initially discounted later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
source amnesia
A memory error caused by forgetting the true source of a memory (also called source confusion or source misattribution)
storage
The retention of encoded information over time
three-stage memory model
A memory model which suggests that memory storage requires passage of information through three stages (sensory, short-term, and long-term memory)
tip-of-the-tounge phenomenon
Feeling that specific information is stored in your long-term memory but being temporarily unable to retrieve it
working memory
An alternative term for short-term memory, which emphasizes the active processing of information