psychological disorders
are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns (requires the 3 Ds) of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
deviant, distressful, dysfunctional
what are the three requirements to be considered a psychological disorder
WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON
PY 101 CH 15-16 SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU
FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE
deviant
_____ behavior, is when a person's behavior is outside of what is considered to be normal behavior
normal
_____ behavior, is relevant to when (time period, past vs today) and where (country or location of society)
distressful
_____ behavior, is a behavior that is disturbing to someone (not necessarily to the person with the behavior)
dysfunctional
_____ behavior, is disruptive to relationships and compromises a person's social life
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
MAD
people with disorders in the middle ages were considered to be _____, this meant you were possessed by demons and place in an asylum tortured
Philippe Pinel
_____ was the first advocate for humane treatment of people with behavior disorders
medical model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured
biopsychosocial approach
An integrated approach toward psychological disorders that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
DSM
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders, does not give a cause.
labeling
_____ can cause change in the way we treat a person or how they act (bad), but is useful for professionals to communicate about a diagnosis (good).
Insanity
A legal status only, indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness.
anxiety disorder
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
a constant low level of anxiety for a longer period of time
panic disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
phobia
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation, (not to be confused with an extreme fear)
OCD (obsessive-compulsive disorder)
anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions
PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder)
anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety and/or insomnia that lingers for > 4 weeks after a traumatic experience
post-traumatic growth
Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive order
sever mood disorder for an extended time with extreme symptoms
bysthymia
referred to as mild chronic depression, is less severe and has fewer symptoms than major depression
season effect disorder
gloomy to debilitating feelings due to more darkness during winter
hypervigilant
refers to the experience of being constantly tense and on guard.
mania
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and depression and the overexcited state of mania.
normal depression
mood disturbance or a normal depressive reaction to a real world problem such as family loss
schizophrenia
means "split mind", not to be confused with multiple-personality. shows itself in disorganized thinking, disturbed perception, and inappropriate emotions and actions
psychosis
A condition characterized by irrationality and loss of contact with reality
delusions
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
disorganized thoughts
Symptom of schizophrenia. Delusions (beliefs), word salad, and a breakdown in selective attention.
hallucinations
False sensory experiences, such as seeing or hearing something that is not really present
inappropriate actions
A schizophrenic person may laugh at the news of someone dying or show no emotions at all
positive symptoms
Schizophrenic behavior when there is a presence of inappropriate behaviors
negative symptoms
schizophrenic behavior when there is an absence of appropriate behaviors
paranoid
Schizophrenic subtype, preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations
disorganized
Schizophrenic subtype, disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate behavior
catatonic
Schizophrenic subtype, immobility (or excessive purposeless movement), extreme negativism and parrot like repeating or another's speech or movements
undifferentiated
Schizophrenic subtype, many varied symptoms
residual
Schizophrenic subtype, withdrawal after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
chronic or process
type of schizophrenia that is long and drawn out, recovery is doubtful
acute or reactive
type of schizophrenia that develops rapidly following a life stress-er recovery is more likely
dissociative disorders
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
DID (dissociative identity disorder)
in which disorder is there an existence of two or more distinct personalities in the person, formerly called multiple personality disorder
anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by an obstinate and willful refusal to eat, a distorted body image, and an intense fear of being fat
bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
binge-eating disorder
Significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
bulimia
Families of _____ patients have a higher than usual incidence of childhood obesity and negative self -evaluation.
anorexia
Families of _____ patients tend to be competitive, high-achieving, and protective
eating disorders
mothers of girls with _____ tend to focus on their own weight and on their daughters' weight and appearance
personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning, extremely resistant to change
antisocial personality disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
rejection or withdrawn
a cluster or type of personality disorder associated with avoidant personality disorder
eccentric or odd
a cluster or type of personality disorder associated with emotionless disengagement or schizoid personality
dramatic or impulsive
a cluster or type of personality disorder associated with attention getting or borderline personality
psychotherapy
An interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties or wants to achieve personal growth.
biomedical therapy
Prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person's physiology.
eclectic approach
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
psychoanalysis
A lengthy insight therapy that was developed by Freud and aims at uncovering conflicts and unconscious impulses through special techniques, including free association, dream analysis, and transference.
resistance
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material; forgetting important details
interpretation
In psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight.
transference
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
counter transference
When the therapist begins to project their own unresolved issues onto the client
Interpersonal psychotherapy
form of psychodyanamic treatment that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships and relationship skills (brief 12-16 sessions)
psychodynamic therapy
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
insight therapies
A variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
client-centered therapy
AKA humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
active listening
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
nondirective therapy
therapists listens without judging or interpreting and refrains from directing the client toward certain insights
unconditional positive regard
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance.
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
counterconditioning
A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitization
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to visual simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
aversive conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
behavior modification
A systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning.
token economy
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a currency of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the currency for various privileges or treats.
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
REBT (rational-emotive behavior therapy)
a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions
Albert Ellis
creator of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
cognitive-behavioral therapy
current therapy of choice, a popular integrative therapy that combines _____ therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with _____ therapy (changing behavior)
group therapy
The simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group, very powerful can also use peer pressure to advantage
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
meta-analysis
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
evidence-based practice
Clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
therapeutic alliance
The bond of confidence and mutual understanding established between therapist and client, which allows them to work together to solve the client's problems
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
antipsychotic drugs
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
antianxiety drugs
Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
antidepressant drugs
Drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
lobotomy
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain