Define Learning:
relatively permanent changes in a behavioral tendency as a result of experience
What is Classical Conditioning?
A learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
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What Psychologist is associated with Classical Conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
In Classical Conditioning, what is the neutral stimulus?
Stimulus does not elicit any part of the unconditioned response
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the neutral stimulus?
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the neutral stimulus?
tuning fork
In Classical Conditioning, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
An event that elicits a certain and predictable response, typically without previous training
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
dog food
In Classical Conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus?
A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the conditioned stimulus?
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the conditioned stimulus?
tuning fork with food
In Classical Conditioning, what is the conditioned response?
The learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the conditioned response?
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the conditioned response?
salivating to the tuning fork
In Classical Conditioning, what is acquisition?
conditioned response occurs gradually and best when conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are closely paired (timing)
In Classical Conditioning, what is generalization?
occurs when the animal/human attempts to see other conditioned stimuli (i.e. see a circle, might respond when sees an oval)
In Classical Conditioning, what is extinction?
occurs when the conditioned response does not occur with the conditioned stimulus
In Classical Conditioning, what is the unconditioned response?
An organism's automatic or natural reaction to a stimulus
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the unconditioned response?
In Pavlov's experiment, what is the unconditioned response?
salivation to food
What is Operant Conditioning?
learning procedure in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
In Operant Conditioning, what is reinforcement?
A stimulus or event that follows a response and increases or decreases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
In Operant Conditioning, what is positive reinforcement?
a stimulus is given
In Operant Conditioning, what is negative reinforcement?
a stimulus is taken away
In Operant Conditioning, what is primary reinforcement?
a stimulus relates to biological needs
In Operant Conditioning, what is secondary reinforcement?
a stimulus relates to desires or wants
In Operant Conditioning, what is shaping?
reinforcement is used to sculpt new responses out of old ones
In Operant Conditioning, what is chaining?
learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next
What psychologist is associated with Operant Conditioning?
B.F. Skinner
What psychologist is associated with Social Learning?
Albert Bandura
What is Social Learning?
Process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behaviors of others
Identify the Social Learning that occurs when children watch the BoBo-The-Clown video with adults treating Bobo-The-Clown poorly.
Identify the Social Learning that occurs when children watch the BoBo-The-Clown video with adults treating Bobo-The-Clown poorly.
youngsters exhibited aggression towards clown
What is learned helplessness?
Condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation in uncontrollable
What is the learning process of modeling?
Learning by imitating others; copying behavior
What is the learning process of Token Economies?
Conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards