associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences
any event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning
the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or though language.
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which we learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the weakening of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the tendency, after conditioning, to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli
operant conditioning
a type of learning im which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide actions closer and closer toward a desired behavior
positive reinforcement
increases behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is anything that when presented after a response, strengthens the response
negative reinforcement
increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is anything that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response
primary reinforcer
an event that is innately reinforcing, often by satisfying a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
an event that gains its reinforcing power through its link with a primary reinforcer
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
an event that decreases the behavior it follows
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
cognitive map
A mental image of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for it's own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to gain a reward or avoid a punishment
observational learning
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
the conscious of repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
the tendency to recall best the the last and first items in a list
memory demonstrated by retrieving information learned earlier, as on fill-in-the-blank test
memory demonstrated by identifying items previously learned, as on multiple-choice test
memory demonstrated by time saved when learning material a second time
retrieval cue
any stimulus linked to a specific memory
deja vu
that eerie sens that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiments that are consistent with your good or bad mood
the blocking of a recall as old or new learning disrupts the recall of other memories
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banished from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety.
misinformation effect
a memory that has been corrupted by misleading information
source amnesia
faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined.