Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) as a result of experience.
Behaviorism
An approach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment and prior experiences as determinants of behavior.
WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON
PSYCHOLOGY "LEARNING AND CONDITIONING" TERMS SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU
FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that already elicits a certain response without additional learning.
Unconditioned Response (UR)
The classical conditioning term for a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The classical conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR)
The classical conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Conditioning
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus is paired with stimulus that already elicits a certain response an, in turn, acquires the capacity to elicit a similar or related response. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
Extinction
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
Higher-order Conditioning
In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus Generalization
After conditioning the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR
Stimulus Discrimination
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR.
Counterconditioning
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
Operant Conditioning
The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
Reinforcement
The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows.
Punishment
The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
Primary Reinforcer
A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a biological need ; an example is food.
Primary Punisher
A stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock.
Secondary Reinforcer
A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforces.
Secondary Punisher
A stimulus that ha acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers.
Positive Reinforcement
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
Negative Reinforcement
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
Extinction (In operating Conditioning)
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response, in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
Stimulus Generalization (In operant conditioning)
The tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of similar stimuli.
Stimulus Discrimination (In operant conditioning)
The tendency of a response to occur in the presence of similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension.
Discriminative Stimulus
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence.
Continuous Reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response i always reinforced.
Intermittent (Partial) Schedule of Reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced.
Shaping
An operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced.
Succesive Approximations
In the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping , behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desire response.
Instinctive Drift
During operant learning, the tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behavior.
Behavior Modification
The application of operant-conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior; also called applied behavior analysis.
Extrinsic Reinforcers
Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
Intrinsic Reinforcers
Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
Latent Learning
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement.
Social-cognitive Learning Theories
Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.
Observational Learning
A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience; sometimes called vicarious conditioning.