A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) as a result of experience.
An approach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment and prior experiences as determinants of behavior.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that already elicits a certain response without additional learning.
Unconditioned Response (UR)
The classical conditioning term for a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
The classical conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response (CR)
The classical conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus is paired with stimulus that already elicits a certain response an, in turn, acquires the capacity to elicit a similar or related response. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus.
After conditioning the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR.
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows.
The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows.
A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a biological need ; an example is food.
A stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock.
A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforces.
A stimulus that ha acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers.
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
Extinction (In operating Conditioning)
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response, in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
Stimulus Generalization (In operant conditioning)
The tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of similar stimuli.
Stimulus Discrimination (In operant conditioning)
The tendency of a response to occur in the presence of similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension.
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence.
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response i always reinforced.
Intermittent (Partial) Schedule of Reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced.
An operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced.
In the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping , behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desire response.
During operant learning, the tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behavior.
The application of operant-conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior; also called applied behavior analysis.
Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement.
Social-cognitive Learning Theories
Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs.
A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience; sometimes called vicarious conditioning.