Psychodynamic Therapies
Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight.
Influenced by Freud, in a face-to-face setting, psychodynamic therapists understand symptoms and themes across important relationships in a patient's life.
Psychotherapy
Any type of therapy between a trained professional and someone seeking help.
Involves an emotionally charges, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient.
Many forms: psychoanalysis, humanistic, behavior therapy, and cognitive therapy.
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Interpersonal Psychotherapy
A variations of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change.
Behavior Therapies
Focuses on changing/reducing the occurrence of some bad behavior as opposed to simply explaining why or how.
Aim to get rid of a problem.
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
To treat phobias or sexual disorders, _______ therapists do not delve deeply below the surface looking for inner causes.
Biomedical Therapies
Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system.
Uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient's nervous system, treating her or her psychological disorders.
These include physical, medicinal, and other forms of biological therapies:
1. Drug Therapies
2. Brain Stimulation
3. Psychotherapy
Drug Therapies
Psychopharmacology is the study of ____ effects on mind and behavior.
With the advent of drugs, hospitalization in mental institutions has rapidly declined. However, many patients are left homeless on the streets to their ill preparedness to cope independently outside in society.
Eclectic Approach to Therapy
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Uses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client's unique problems.
Psychoanalysis
Aim to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them.
Uses free association.
Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts.
Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapists interpretations of them-released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
The first formal psychotherapy to emerge developed by Sigmund Freud. (Famous couch)
Resistance
In psychoanalysis, the blocking from unconscious of anxiety-laden material.
A sign of progress in therapy.
A disruptive response such as "I forgot" or picking a fight with a therapist to a certain topic. It is sensitive because it is the root or near root of problem.
Transference
In psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a patient)
Patients transfer feelings of a particular person in their lives to the therapist.
Humanistic Approach to Therapy
Aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance.
The therapist engages in active listening and echoes, restates, and clarifies the patient's thinking, acknowledging expressed feelings.
Focuses on our inner capacities for growth and self fulfillment.
Client-Centered Therapy
A form of humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers.
The therapist listens to the needs of the patient in an accepting and non-judgmental way, addressing problems in a productive way and building his or her self-esteem.
Active Listening
Empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
Systematic Desensitization
Make levels/hierarchy of anxiety for the thing feared (dating women example).
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias, fears, and aversions.
Token Economy
An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort got exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
In institutional settings, therapists may create a token economy in which patients exchange a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges.
Counterconditioning
"Unconditioning"
Replaces bad or unpleasant emotional responses to a stimuli with more pleasant adaptive responses.
A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
A procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors.
It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure and aversive conditioning.
Exposure Therapy
Expose patients to things they fear and avoid. Through repeated exposures, anxiety lessens because they habituate to the things feared. Involves exposing people to fear-driving objects in real or virtual environments.
Aversive Therapy
A type of conditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior. With this technique, temporary conditioned aversion to alcohol has been reported.
Pairs maladaptive behavior, like smoking, with an unpleasant stimulus.
Aversive Conditioning
A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Cognitive Therapies
Developed by Aaron Beck.
Negative thoughts is the cause of depression, anxiety, etc.
What we think-> determines how we feel-> influences how we behave.
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
_________ therapists often combine the reversal of self-defeated thinking with efforts to modify behavior.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Aims to alter the way people act and alter the way they think.
EX: No promotion makes someone think boss does not like her. Gives up at work. Which makes likelihood of promotion go down. If change thinking by looking at what can be improved, she may have gotten the promotion.
Aaron (Alexander) Beck
Developed cognitive therapy.
Suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy (thinking) and thus associated minor failings (ex: failing a test (event)) in life as major causes for their depression.
____ believes that cognitions such as "I can never be happy" need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients.
Psychiatrist
Different from psychologists in the have a medical degree and can prescribe medication.
They are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have extensive training in psychotherapy, but as MDs they can prescribe medications.
ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy)
Shock therapy.
Electrical current is sent through brain to produce chemical change.
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
_____ is used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs. The patient is anesthetized and given a muscle relaxant. Patients usually get a 100-volt shock that relieves them of depression.
Psychosurgery
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior.
Started 40,000 years ago to get rid of demons or "stones of madness".