Ebbinghaus forgetting curve
-suggests meaningful material is easier to remember
-relearning takes less time than initial learning
-the best time to practice is when you are about to forget
decay
-"use it or lose it"
-memory is stored in physical connections between neurons
-connections deteriorate over time, especially without use
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interference
-competing memories
retroactive interference
-a memory error in which new information interferes with remembering old information (backward acting interference)
-new information makes you forget the old information
proactive interference
-a memory error in which old information interferes with remembering new information (forward acting interference)
-old information interferes with the ability to remember new information
motivated forgetting
-"on purpose" forgetting
-Freud suggesting people forget unpleasant or anxiety producing information either consciously or unconsciously
encoding failure
-the information was never recorded
-it traveled into STM but never made it to LTM
-caused partially by failure to attend to details
retrieval theory
-the memory is there but cannot be retrieved (not available)
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
-feeling that specific information is stored in your long-term memory but being temporarily unable to retrieve it
-problems caused by interference, faulty cues, emotional arousal
misinformation effect
-a memory distortion that results from misleading post-event information
-memories aren't instance replay but are reconstructed and altered each time they are retrieved, usually influenced by information occurring after the event
serial position effect
-a characteristic of memory retrieval in which information at the beginning and end of a series is remembered better than the middle
-the order in which the information is encountered effects memory
-you would want to be the first or last interview of the day
primary effect
-information at the beginning of the list is easier to recall
recency effect
-information at the end of the list is easier to recall
source amnesia
-a memory error caused by forgetting the true source of a memory (also called source confusion or source misattribution)
-forgetting the true source of the information
sleeper effect
-a memory error in which information from an unreliable source that was initially discounted later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
-at first we discount information from an unreliable source as bad information, but through source amnesia we forget who said it and then the unreliable information is no longer discounted
massed practice
-a study technique in which time spent learning is grouped (or massed) into long, unbroken intervals
-also known as cramming
distributed practice
-a study technique in which practice (or study) sessions are interspersed with rest periods
-spacing learning periods with rest (nonlearning) periods
-practice sessions separated by 24 hours showed significant improvement in retention