Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist - his original study was about saliva and gastric secretions in the digestive processes of dogs
Conditioning
a systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned
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Learning
relatively permanent change that occurs as a result of experiences in the environment and that is often exhibited in overt behaviors
stimulus
an event that has an impact on an organism
Response
the reaction of an organism to a stimulus
reflex
an automatic behavior that occurs involuntarily in response to a stimulus without prior learning and usually shares little variability from instance to instance
learned
reflexes are not _____
reflexes
conditioned responses are not _____
classical conditioning
a conditioning process in which an originally neutral stimulus, by repeated pairing with a stimulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a similar or even identical response
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that normally produces a measurable involuntary response
conditioned stimulus
a neutral stimulus that through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus begins to elicit a conditioned response
conditioned response
a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
acquisition process
the pairing of the neutral stimulus with the unconditional stimulus in order for the neutral stimulus to become the conditioned stimulus (Pavlov ringing the bell)
doctor hits knee
unconditioned stimulus
knee jerks
unconditioned response
response
always stimulus to _____
conditioned stimulus -> conditioned response
CS -> CR
neutral, CS, CR (salivation)
Pavlov ringing the bell is a _____ stimulus that turns into a _____, that makes the _____
strength of the US
the stronger the correlation of the unconditioned stimulus to the UR, we elicit a stronger neutral stimulus to CS
timing of the neutral stimulus
the NS comes before the US and overlaps briefly
frequency of pairings
has to do with with acquisition process - if increase _____ then increase likelihood that the neutral stimulus will become the CS
extinction
misnomer - learned behaviors never go away - learning is nearly permanent (like smoking), just suppressed - Pavlov rings bell doesn't give food - will have to extinguish the response in every situation it happens
spontaneous recovery
when take break and Pavlov rings bell again, dog starts salivating again - levels of salivation will get lower and lower
stimulus generalization
the conditioned response will occur in relation to stimuli that are similar to the original neutral stimulus or CS (child afraid of men with beards)
stimulus discrimination
when discrimination of stimuli becomes more difficult, a person or animal tends to become more aggressive (internal conflict)
The Garcia Effect
gave animals a very specific food - 2 hrs later induced nausea, animals began to avoid that specific food - called taste aversion
taste and smell
in the Garcia Effect you can only cause _____ and _____ aversions, but not to the other senses (survival)
learning and chemotherapy
can eat healthier because taste buds are numbed by chemo - can learn to eat better
operant conditioning (OC)
Skinner used rats - conditioning in which there is an increase or decrease in the probability that a behavior will recur and is affected by the delivery of reinforcement or punishment as a consequence of the behavior
2 major differences
between operant condintioning and classical conditioning - in OC the conditioned behavior is typically voluntary and the consequences comes after the behavior
skinner boxes
box used to conduct operant conditioning experiments
shaping box
a gradual process of selectively reinforcing behavior that comes closer to the desired response
reinforcement
a reinforcer is any event that increases the probability of a recurrence of the response that proceeded it
positive reinforcement
the presentation of a stimulus after a response in order to increase the likelihood that the response will recur
negative reinforcement
increase the probability of a response through the removal of a stimulus (dad stops drinking, kid makes better grades)
escape conditioning
rat in maze, making a left in the maze shuts off elect. grid - eventually set themselves up to escape
avoidance conditioning
rings buzzer before turning on elect. grid - rat learns to turn left when buzzer turns on to beat the elect. grid coming on
primary reinforcer
one that has survival value (food)
secondary reinforcer
originally in a neutral stimulus that turned into a reinforcer - used to modify behaviors (money, grades)
punishment
the process of presenting an undesired stimulus or removing a desired stimulus in order to decrease the probability that the response will recur
limitations of punishment
only suppresses a behavior, cannot establish a new behavior - when increase you also increase agitation
strength of consequences
if increase reward, then increase desired behavior - if punishment too strong just as bad if it is too weak
timing of consequences
needs to happen a short time after the behavior
continuous reinforcement
reinforcement after every time a behavior occurs
interval schedule
based on time periods
fixed interval schedule
skinner has rat in box - rat pressed lever, got food, but not until certain amount of time (set time) every 50 seconds for instance
variable interval schedule
same rat with lever but with different times (preset the recurring times) like 50 sec, 60 sec, 20 sec
fixed ratio schedule
same rat but rat get food for every 30 pushes, faster pace push
variable ratio schedule
different pushes - 20 presses, 10 presses, 100 presses (preset) no predictability - press faster than fixed, work longer
metacognition
thinking about our thinking - gives insight into how you learn
observational learning theory (social learning theory)
BANDURA - organisms learn new responses by observing the behaviors of models and then imitating it - kids watch adults and imitate (bobo toy)
more
nurturing and caring models are _____ likely to be engaged and imitated than angry or indifferent models
authoritative, passive
_____ parents are preferred over _____ parents
power, dominate
in classroom, children more likely to imitate peers that seem to have _____ or are _____
decrease, imitation
with _____ in self-esteem, we see an increase in _____
independent, uncertain
children imitate _____ children and increase imitation when _____ about correct behavior