learning
process of acquiring new and relatively enduring info or behaviors
conditioning
process of learning associations that takes two main forms; classical and operant
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stimulus
anyeventor situation that evokes a responce
cognitive learning
acquisition of mental info by observing events, watching others, or through language
pavlov
who did the first experimental studies of associative learning
behavorist
what did watson consider himself to be
neutral stimulus
elicts no response before conditioning
dog food
unconditioned stimulus in pavlovs experiment
drooling
unconditioned response in pavlovs experiment
conditioned responce
what does the conditioned stimulus signal the impending occurence of
extinction
when cs no longer signals a us
spontaneous recovery
reapearance of weakened cr after a pause
extinction was suppressing the cr
occurance of spontaneous recovery suggests that what happens during extinction
generaliation
tendency to respond likewise to stimuli similar to the cs
discrimination
learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli
pavlov
who studied respondent behavior
skinner
who studied operant behavior
operant conditioning
what form of learning behavior is influenced by its consequences
associative learning
what study of little albert demonstrate
law of effect
what did skinners work elaborate of what thorndike did
shaping
guide behavior towards closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
negative reinforcement
what kind of stimulus when removed after a responce strengthens the response
add something
best way to describe primary reinforcers
conditioned reinforcer
when stimulus acquires reinforcing power through its associations with a primary reinforce
fixed ratio
reinforces responce after specified number of responces
variable ratio
reinforces responce after unpredictable # of responces
fixed interval
reinforces responce after specified time has passed
variable interval
reinforces responce as unpredictable time interval
increase
Positive reinforcers ___the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ___the rate of operant responding
operant responces
responce that can be modified by consequences and is a meaningful, measurable unit of behavior
partial reinforcement
learning that some responces, but not others, will be inforced
external influences
according to skinner, human behavior is primary controlled by what
intrinsic
voluntary behaviors that produce rewarding or punishing consequences callled
operant conditionings
learning association between behaviors and resulting events central to
organisms expectation that us will follow a cs
a psychologist who emphasizes cognitive processes would be likely to suggest that classical conditioning depends on
everyday imitation and observational learning
mirror neurons provide biological basis for
observational learning
bandura helped w
extrinsic
desire to perform behavior dueto promised rewards or threats of punishment