Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior
includes all of our outward or overt action and reactions. such as talking, facial expressions and movements
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Mental Processes
Internal,covert activities of our minds. Such as thinking felling and remembering
Psychology's goals
Description,Explanation,Prediction,and Contorl
How long has psychology been around?
Relatively new field, 135 years old
who developed the first psychology laboratory?
Wilhellm wundt
Objective introspection
process of objectively examining and measuring ones own thought and mental activities.
sturucturalism
Edward Titchener. focus of study was the structure of the mind.
Functionlism
how people work play and adapt to there surrounding
Gestalt psychology
studying sensation and perception. Gestalt is a German word meaning an organized whole which fit well with the focus on studying whole patterns instead of pieces.
Cognitive Psychology
Field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought process and problem solving
Repress
push back information out of mind
sychoanalysis
Theory and therapy based on Frued's ideas. Has been basis of much modern pschyotherapy.
humanistic perpective
Blank help the view that people have free will
Behaviorism
science of behavior
Observational Behavior
something that can be directly seen and measured
Phobia
an irrational fear, is really a symptom of underlying, repress conflict and cannot be cured without years of psychoanalysis
Counterconditioning
trying to fix what a person is scared of by doing the same thing over and over
Conditioning
learning to react to a certain stimulus
psychodynamic perspective
the focus may still include the unconscious mind and its influence over conscious behavior and early childhood experiences
operant conditioning
to explain how voluntary behavior is learned
behavioral responses
followed by pleasurable consequences are strengthened or reinforced
free will
freedom to choose own destiny
self actualization
the achievement of one's full potential
cognitive perspective
focus on memory, intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem solving, language, and learning
cognitive neuroscience
study of physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory, thinking, and other cognitive processes
social cultural perspective
combines 2 areas of study social psychology and cultural psychology
social psychology
study of groups, social roles, and rules of social actions and relationships
cultural psychology
study of cultural norms, values, and expectations
diffusion of responsibility
the tendency to feel that someone is responsible for taking action when others are present
bio psychology
study of the biological basis of behavior and mental processes
neuroscience
study of physical structure, function, and development of the nervous system
bio psychological perspective
human and animal behavior is seen as direct results of events in the body
schizophrenia
mental disorder involving delusions, hallucinations, and extremely disordered thinking
evolutionary perspective
focus on the biological basis of universal, mental characteristics that all humans share
evolutionary psychologist
study the evolutionary origins of human behavior
psychiatrist
medical degree in a physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment
psychiatric social worker
trained in area of social work and usually posses a mater degree in that discipline
basic research
research for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge
applied research
research aimed at answering real world, practical problems
scientific method
reducing bias and error in measurement of data
5 steps of scientific method
1. perceiving the question
2. forming hypothesis
3. testing hypothesis
4. drawing conclusion
5. report results
replicate
doing the same research the same way and getting the same results
naturalistic observation
observe object in natural environment
observer effect
animals or people knowing they are being watched will not behave normally
participant observation
researchers might use one way mirrors or may become participants in group
case study
one individual is studied in great detail
correlation
measure of the relationship of two or more variables
operational definition
specifically names the operations steps or procedures that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment
single blind study
blind to the treatment they receive
double blind study
neither the participants nor the person or persons measuring the dependent variable know who got what
critical thinking
means making reasoned judgements
nervous system
network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body
neuroscience
branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and functioning of the brain and the neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue that form the nervous system
biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience
branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning, and it is the primary area associated with the biological perspective in psychology
neuron
specialized cell in the nervous system that receives and sends messages within the system
axon terminals
little knobs on the end of short fibers which are responsible for communicating with other nerve cells. also called "presynaptic terminals","terminal buttons", "synaptic knobs"
glial cells
or glia that serve as many functions such as structure
dendrites
parts of the neuron that receive messages from other cells. means "tree like"
axon
"axis" attached to the soma and its job is to carry messages out to other cells
soma
"cell body"
major depressive disorder and schizophrenia
glial cells are being investigated for their possible role in a variety of psychiatric disorders
myelin
fatty substance
nerves
bundles of axons
diffusion
process of ions moving from areas of high concentration to low concentration
resting potential
when the cell is resting
action potential
the electrical potential is now in action rather than at rest
synaptic vessels
little sac like structures
neurotransmitters
molecule substance inside the synaptic vessels which are chemical suspended in fluid
receptor sites
protein that allow only particular molecules of a certain shape to fit into it, just as a only particular key will fit into a key hole
excitatory synapses
turns the cells on
inhibitory synapses
turns the cells off
antagonist
a chemical substance that blocks or reduces the effects of a neurotransmitter for Ach
parasympathetic division
called the eat, drink, and rest system
endocrine glands
have no ducts and secrete their chemical directly into the bloodstream
hormones
chemicals secreted by the endocrine
pituitary gland
located in the brain itself just below the hypothalamus
cerebellum
base of the skull behind the pons and below the main part of the brain is a structure that looks like a small brain, means "little brain"
reticular formation
network of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond
medulla
located at top of the spinal column
pons
larger swelling just above the medulla
limbic system
found in inner margin of the upper brain include the thalamus, hypothalamus, hypocampus, amygedla, and the cingulate cortex
occipital lobe
base of the cortex towards the back of the brain
parietal lobes
at the top and back of the brain just under the partial bone of the skull
temporal lobes
found just behind the temples of the head
frontal lobes
front of the brain
motor cortex
band of neurons located at the back of each lobe
mirror neurons
fire when an animal performs an action but also fires when an animal observes the same action by another
association areas
made up of neurons in the cortex that are devoted to making connections between the sensory information coming into the brain and stored memories, images, and knowledge
spacial neglect
in which a person with damage to the right parietal and occipital lobe of the cortex will ignore everything in the left visual field
cerebrum
upper part of the brain consisting of 2 hemispheres and the structures connecting them
Blank ideas are now part of the study of cognitive psychology a field focused not only on perception but also on learning memory thought process and problem solving (also what is the mode ow of that theory)
Gestalts idea
the modow is The hole is greater than the sum of parts