stimulus
A(n) _____ is an event or occurrence that generally leads to a response.
Connecting A to B.
Learning is most like
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genes are to environment
Nature is to nurture as
be controlled more easily.
Animals are appealing to researchers studying learning because they can
Drawing a picture with a pencil.
Learning is most similar to
classical conditioning
With _____, we associate two different stimuli, such as the sound of a bell and food.
"associations".
Your professor asks you to summarize learning in one word, what word do you choose?
habituation
Your friend doesn't understand why her cat is no longer interested in the feather toy she bought last week. You suggest it may be the result of
classical conditioning
You teach a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell by pairing the bell with food. This is an example of
habituation
You are excited the first time your professor gives you a candy for getting an A on the test but are less thrilled by the third candy. This is an example of
higher order conditioning
With repeated pairings of a conditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus, when the second neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus as well, _____ has occurred.
conditioned emotional response
A(n) _____ is an emotional reaction acquired via classical conditioning.
Skinner boxes
_____ are chambers outfitted with food dispensers that animals can activate and recording equipment to monitor these Behaviors.
Stimulus discrimination
_____ is also apparent in operant conditioning, as organisms can learn to discriminate between behaviors that do and do not result in reinforcement.
Punishment; increase
_____ is designed to decrease the behavior that it follows, and reinforcement aims to _____ the behavior.
ring a bell; give food
If you were instructing someone on how to replicate one of Pavlov's experiments you could instruct them to ____ and then _____.
extinction.
Spontaneous recovery cannot occur without
when it elicits a conditioned response.
At what point does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus?
consequences
With operant conditioning, the _____ of Behaviors influence future outcomes.
frontal lobes
Harsh physical punishment could interfere with cognitive development, retarding the growth in various parts of the _____, a region of the brain that processes complex thoughts.
Learning
Andrew's friend has paired a buzzer sound with a puff of air blown in Andrew's eye, which makes him blink. After a few trials Andrew blinks at the sound of the buzzer alone. This is an example of
extinction.
In classical conditioning, the process by which the conditioned response decreases after repeated exposure to the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus is called:
taste aversion
In a study on _____, researchers provided animals with flavored water followed by injections of a drug that upset their stomachs. The animals rejected the flavored drink thereafter.
reinforcement.
If you know that doing something a certain way will get you something you want, you have learned about the _________ related to the behavior.
received consequences for his behaviour
You teach your dog to go to the bathroom outside using a combination of rewards and punishment. In this case the key to learning is that the dog
reinforcers; aversive stimuli
Operant conditioning uses _____ to increase target behaviors, and punishment applies _____ to decrease unwanted behaviors.
A cat that comes running when someone goes near their food dish.
Which is an example of Pavlovian conditioning?
Classical conditioning
_____ is the learning process in which two stimuli become associated with each other.
neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
For Little Albert, the sight of the rat went from being a(n) _____ to a(n) _____, and his fear of the rat became a conditioned response.
the law of effect
You performed an experiment that showed that rats were more likely to press a lever again when they were given a reward on a previous trial than when they were given a shock, this is an example of
shaping
James teaches his dog to roll over first by teaching his dog to lie down, then to shift to one side, then to roll over. What method of acquisition is occurring?
decreases; increases
Negative punishment _______ a behavior, negative reinforcement _______ a behavior.
Footsteps.
If you were conducting an experiment based on Pavlov's original observations, which of the following stimuli would you use?
Stimulus generalization
Laura notices that her rat, who was conditioned to avoid a part of the cage when a red light appeared, also avoids that part of the cage when a green light appears. Laura's rat is showing
conditioned stimulus
If you fear something that cannot harm you, the thing you fear is a (an)
Secondary reinforcers are used to obtain primary reinforcers.
How are secondary reinforcers linked to primary reinforcers?
Positive punishment
Spanking is an example of
association.
At the core of all examples of Pavlovian conditioning is
acquisition
One thing that is the same about classical and operant conditioning is that the initial stage is referred to as _________ in both paradigms.
a baby.
If you were replicated the study by Watson and Rayner you would need
B. F. Skinner
You are writing a paper on the founder of Behaviorism, who is most likely to be the subject of your paper?
secondary
Your mother gives you money for mowing the lawn. The money is a _____ reinforcer.
increases; decreases
Positive reinforcement _______ a behavior, negative punishment _______ a behavior.
conditioned
In early experiments with dogs, Pavlov found that the dogs began to salivate at the mere sight or sound of the lab assistant. The dog had been __________.
neutral stimulus
You are setting up a classical conditioning experiment. The term you use for the stimulus that does not produce a response before the experiment is the
involuntary
Pavlov followed up on his initial observations with numerous studies in the early 1900s. Pavlov studied _____ behaviours, like salivating.
Learning
_____ has occurred whenever a new, nonuniversal link between a stimulus and response is established.
extinction.
Spontaneous recovery cannot occur without
a neutral stimulus.
You conduct and experiment where you pair the sound of a bell with the presentation of food to a dog. Before the start of the experiment the bell is
conditioned taste aversion
The evolutionary perspective helps clarify why some types of learning are so powerful. With _____, species gain an evolutionary advantage through quick and efficient learning about poisonous foods.
extinction.
You have conditioned a dog to salivate at the sound of a bell. You present the bell without food several times. You expect the dog to show
autonomic nervous system.
The dogs in Pavlov's experiments began to salivate when exposed to the smell of food, even before tasting it. This is an involuntary response of the:
acquisition
One thing that is the same about classical and operant conditioning is that the initial stage is referred to as _________ in both paradigms.
not all conditioned responses are emotional.
What is true about the variations of classical conditioning?
acquisition
The initial learning phase in both classical and operant conditioning is called:
innate; learned
In Pavlov's experiments, the connection between food and salivating is _____, whereas the link between the sound of the footsteps and salivating is _____.
They would all be involuntary responses.
You can study a number of different responses using Pavlov's original approach, but they would all have one thing in common. What would that be?
Ivan Pavlov
The son of a village priest, _____ had planned to devote his life to the church. Instead, he conducted research on the physiology of digestion. His most enduring legacy was his trailblazing research on learning.
learning
Pavlov discovered how associations develop through the process of_____, which he referred to as conditioning.
conditioned stimulus
You were not afraid of dogs. Over the course of a couple weeks you had three unpleasant experiences with a neighbour's dog who runs at you snarling and barking. Now you are afraid of the dog. Now that you fear the dog, the dog is a (an)
salivating to a bell.
Suppose you are reading about a Pavlovian experiment. Which of the following would be an example of a conditioned response?
stimuli and responses
You are about to read about an experiment that used Pavlov's paradigm. Before you even begin reading you know you will read about
Operational definitions
Your professor is talking about an experiment about learning. He says that in his experiment 'learning' would be said to occur if the animal showed a relatively permanent change in behaviour gained through experience. Your professor has just provided you with the ______ of learning.
pair
When you conduct an Pavlovian experiment you _____ one stimulus with another.
neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
You didn't mind cats, until your roommate's cat attacked you, now you fear all cats. To you, cats went from being a ____________ to being a ____________.
salivating when food is presented.
Which of these examples related to Pavlovian conditioning does NOT show learning?
quolls could not learn to avoid the toads on their own because eating one toad killed the quoll.
Researchers tried to get quolls to stop eating toxic toads byconditioning taste aversion because
a conditioned response
You never used to care about the phone ringing, but ever since you got some bad news over the phone last week that made you nervous, hearing the phone makes you nervous. In classical conditioning terms, your response to the phone now is
antisocial behaviors
One study conducted in New Zealand and discussed in your text found that the more television children watched, the more likely they were to show _____ as young adults.
positively reinforced; positively punished
In a Bobo doll experiment conducted by Bandura, children were more likely to copy models who were _____ for their aggressive behavior and less likely to mimic those who were _____.
aggression.
In a study conducted by Bandura, children who were paired with adults who acted violently toward a Bobo doll performed displays of:
the more television a child watches the more likely they are to be antisocial.
There is a positive correlation between television watching (regardless of the content) and antisocial behavior. This means that
act aggressively.
Deanne was shown a video of a person hitting a clown doll whereas Andrea was shown a video of a person hugging a clown doll. After the presentation of the video Deanne is more likely to
having more siblings is positively correlated with prosocial behavior.
You do a study and find that the more siblings a child has the more prosocial behavior they show. This means
Observational learning
Which of the following types of learning would be involved if a person with limited vision learned how to press elevator buttons by resting their hand on someone else who was doing the action in the correct sequence?
Albert Bandura
Dr. Yates is interested is observing whether children who observe aggressive behavior in adults are more aggressive towards other children than children who do not observe aggressive behavior. Whose work is Dr. Yates replicating?