Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
Both classical and operant conditioning can take place vicariously through observational learning.
The key dependent variable measured in operant conditioning studies is
the organism's response rate.
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In classical conditioning the response is ____, while in operant conditioning, the response is ____.
elicited; emitted
Learning that is NOT apparent from behavior when it first occurs is known as
latent learning.
Pat takes a prescription medication in order to reduce pain; Kelly takes the same medication in order to experience a "drug high." Pat's behavior is reinforced by ____ reinforcement and Kelly's behavior by ____ reinforcement.
negative; positive
Extinction of an operantly conditioned response occurs when the response
is no longer followed by reinforcement.
Cognitive processes are involved in which of the following key processes associated with observational learning?
Attention and retention
Conditioned taste aversions illustrate that an organism's biological heritage may place constraints on general learning processes. These phenomena add support to
the evolutionary perspective on learning.
As a young child, when you first realized that you could use money to buy candy and soda, money began to become an effective
secondary reinforcer.
In a Skinner box, the cumulative recorder
creates a graphic record of operant responding as a function of time.
An antecedent in a behavior modification program is
an event that precedes a behavior.
Researchers have found that animals show evidence of classical conditioning if they are injected with a drug that chemically causes immunosuppression while they are simultaneously drinking an unusual-tasting liquid. In these studies, the conditioned response would be
the immunosuppression.
Pavlov became interested in conditioning when he observed laboratory dogs
salivating right before food was placed in their mouths.
A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus is known as
classical conditioning.
An animal will give a conditioned response to a stimulus that has never been associated with the presentation of the original US in both
stimulus generalization and higher-order conditioning.
Learning to tie one's shoes is most likely acquired via the process of
operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
fear the dark.
Angela came home after her curfew last night; as a result, her parents have taken away her driving privileges for a week. What discipline technique are Angela's parents using?
Punishment
It often helps an individual comply with a behavior modification program if he signs a written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of the program. This type of agreement is referred to as a(n)
behavioral contract.
As a teenager, it seemed that your mom was always nagging you to clean your room. Eventually, you learned that if you cleaned your room every Saturday morning, you would not have to listen to her nagging. Your mother was successful in getting you to clean your room through the use of ____ to establish ____.
negative reinforcement; avoidance learning
April wants to teach her cat not to claw at the arms of her couch. She will be MOST successful in reducing the cat's scratching behavior if she uses
operant conditioning.
Carson used to enjoy lime sherbet, so when he was in Mexico, he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita, Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is
the lime margaritas that Carson consumed.
A previously neutral stimulus, that through conditioning acquires the capacity to evoke a response, is
a conditioned stimulus.
Research shows that children who are spanked tend to
have lower IQs.
According to Rescorla, the single best way to ensure a strong CR is to arrange that the CS
is the most predictive signal for the US.
Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringeing in the waiting room is
a conditioned response.
Two processes involved in the acquisition of phobias and the tendency of phobias to show a high resistance to extinction are
classical and operant conditioning.
Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response are referred to as
discriminative stimuli.
The technique used to teach animals complex tricks, such as teaching pigeons to play ping-pong, is
shaping
At preschool, Jessi has learned that she must wash her hands before snack-time in order to get a snack. At home, however, her parents do not check to make sure she washes her hands. When she is home, Jessi does not wash her hands before eating. Jessi's behavior illustrates the process of
stimulus discrimination.
A student who studies in order to earn high grades is working for ____; a student who studies in order to avoid low grades is working for ____.
positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
Making a child sit in the corner until he says "I'm sorry"
If a dog salivates to a blue light and not to a yellow light, the dog is showing evidence of
stimulus discrimination.
The reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction and a period of rest is called
spontaneous recovery.
The study by Domjan et al. (1998), which investigated the adaptive significance of sexual conditioning, may shed some light on
how sexual fetishes develop in humans.
When Diana was three years old, she became terrified when the neighbor's budgie bird kept flying near her head. Today, she is afraid of all birds, including robins, pigeons, and blue jays. Diana's fear illustrates the classical conditioning process of
stimulus generalization.
Angela came home after her curfew last night; as a result, her parents have taken away her driving privileges for a week. What discipline technique are Angela's parents using?
Punishment
If a classically conditioned response undergoes extinction in an environment that is different from the one in which the response was acquired, the extinguished response will often reappear if the individual is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place. This phenomenon is called
the renewal effect.
Learning that is NOT apparent from behavior when it first occurs is known as
latent learning.
After owning a car with a manual transmission, Don buys a car with an automatic transmission. When first driving his new car, he keeps reaching for the nonexistent clutch and gearshift. This is an example of
stimulus generalization.
Bart used to go to his health club every day after work because he almost always saw Abigail there. For two full weeks, Abigail wasn't at the club when Bart went there for his workout, and now Bart has stopped going to his health club. This example illustrates the operant conditioning process of
extinction.
Any event that follows a behavior and results in the behavior having a lower probability of happening in the future is known as a
punisher.
Nolan has learned to drink a cup of coffee whenever he gets a tension headache because drinking coffee makes the pain of the headache go away. This is an example of
escape learning.
Kylee used to bring drawings home from her kindergarten class every day. Her parents would put the pictures on the refrigerator and tell Kylee how nice the pictures were. Lately, her parents haven't been putting her artwork on the refrigerator, and now Kylee has stopped bringing drawings home with her. This example illustrates the operant conditioning process of
extinction.
Typically, most people would
enjoy being negatively reinforced and dislike being punished.
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
Making a child sit in the corner until he says "I'm sorry"
Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to
fear the dark.
In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus is
a stimulus that evokes a response without previous conditioning.
When an individual has a phobia, the irrational fear and anxiety that the person experiences is
a conditioned response.
In the Little Albert experiment on conditioned emotional responses, stimulus generalization was shown when Albert showed the fear response to
the rabbit.
Darrel was dancing with his new girlfriend at an Elvis tribute. When the band started playing, "Can't Help Falling in Love with You," his girlfriend gave him a long, passionate kiss, which Darrel found very enjoyable. Now Darrel finds that every time he hears "Can't Help Falling in Love with You" on the radio, he becomes mildly excited. In this example, the long, passionate kiss is
an unconditioned stimulus.
The existence of biological constraints on learning such as preparedness and conditioned taste aversions reflects the unifying theme in psychology that
heredity and environment jointly influence behavior.
Your spouse withdraws attention from you each time you begin criticizing her cooking. Eventually, you stop criticizing your spouse's cooking. The withdrawal of attention can be categorized as
punishment.
If you devise a self-modification program in which you systematically reward yourself for studying, you are applying the principles of
operant conditioning.
Sally developed a fear of balconies after almost falling from a balcony on a couple of occasions. What was the conditioned response?
Fear of the balcony
Research examining the long-term effects of media violence has demonstrated that
the more violence children watch on TV, the more aggressive they tend to be at home and school.
Jeremy stops gambling five minutes after his slot machine last paid off; Jessica is still gambling, even though her slot machine hasn't paid off in over an hour. In this example, Jeremy's behavior ____ while Jessica's behavior ____.
shows low resistance to extinction; shows high resistance to extinction
Conditioned taste aversions illustrate that an organism's biological heritage may place constraints on general learning processes. These phenomena add support to
the evolutionary perspective on learning.
If a baseball player who has been in a batting slump for several weeks alters his batting stance and wears a new batting glove one day and gets three hits, the cognitive explanation of conditioning suggests that for the next game, the baseball player will continue to
use the new batting stance.
Carson used to enjoy lime sherbet, so when he was in Mexico, he tried frozen lime margaritas. After his fourth margarita, Carson became extremely ill. Now he finds that even the sight of lime sherbet in a bowl can make him feel queasy. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is
the lime margaritas that Carson consumed.
A three-year-old boy observes his father yelling at his mother every time she says something the father doesn't like. Based on principles of observational learning, whenever the mother says something to the boy that he does not like in the future, the boy is MOST likely to do which of the following?
Yell at his mother
A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus is known as
classical conditioning.
You have familiarized yourself with the streets of your town without any reinforcement; then one day, you are asked to go to the post office. You are able to do so with ease by following a route that you have never taken. This is an example of
latent learning.
The initial stage of learning a response is called
acquisition.
When animals or humans are shifted to higher fixed-ratio schedules, which require more responses to obtain each reinforcer, the typical result is
an increase in the overall rate of responding.
If a child covers her ears when seeing fireworks, before hearing the sound of them, seeing the fireworks would be a(n)
conditioned stimulus.
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate?
Both classical and operant conditioning can take place vicariously through observational learning.
The process of selectively reinforcing responses that are closer and closer approximations of some desired response is called
shaping
Chimps are trained to perform a variety of tasks to get coins. The coins could then be traded in for banana chips that could be eaten. The coins served as a
secondary reinforcer.
Food is an example of ____; praise is an example of ____.
a primary reinforcer; a secondary reinforcer
When a conditioned response shows spontaneous recovery, the rejuvenated response typically
is weaker than the previously conditioned response.
You are watching a rat pressing a lever in a Skinner box to obtain food pellets. The rat is pressing the lever at a slow, steady rate, but it does not stop, even when a food pellet is delivered. In this example, the reinforcement schedule that is in place is MOST likely
a variable-interval schedule.
The type of learning that occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others who are called models is
observational learning.
Primary reinforcers are effective because
they satisfy basic biological survival needs.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which
responses come to be controlled by their consequences.
The principles of learning and conditioning have
been widely applied in education, business, and industry.
Classical conditioning could easily account for how a young child might learn to
fear the dentist.
Henry got a bad sunburn on his face when he was skiing last winter. Now, before he starts a day of skiing, he uses a sunscreen on his face to prevent another sunburn. In this case, avoiding a sunburn functions as
a negative reinforcer for using a sunscreen.
When shown a Santa Claus beard, Little Albert showed a fear response, which was evidence of
stimulus generalization.
Lyn is afraid of all spiders because her brother once dropped a spider down her shirt when she was younger. Today, even the sight of a rubber spider is enough to send shivers down her spine. The learning process that could best account for Lyn's fear of spiders is
classical conditioning.
When Skyler was first training his dog, Smooches, to heel he would give Smooches a treat when she stayed close during walks. Now Smooches stays right by Skyler's side, even when she is not on her leash. In this case,
the dog treats were positive reinforcers for staying close.
Ken has been conditioned to be afraid of snow. For a number of weeks during November and December, snow is repeatedly presented with Santa Claus; now Ken is also fearful of Santa Claus. This example illustrates the classical conditioning process of
higher-order conditioning.
When a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus it is called
negative reinforcement.
Negative reinforcement ____ the rate of a response; punishment ____ the rate of a response.
increases; decreases
The studies of Garcia and his colleagues demonstrate that rats very easily learn to associate a taste CS with
a nausea-inducing US.
Frederick cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, the pain of dental drilling is
an unconditioned stimulus.
Nicolas has autistic disorder and is mute. A therapist working with Nicolas initially gave him a piece of chocolate any time he made a sound with his lips. This slowly changed until Nicolas only received a piece of chocolate for saying complete words, and eventually only for saying complete sentences. In this example, Nicolas developed speech skills through the use of
shaping
Cognitive processes are involved in which of the following key processes associated with observational learning?
Attention and retention
Application of conditioning principles to solve behavior problems is generally known as
behavior modification.
Classical conditioning is to ____ responses as operant conditioning is to ____.
reflexive; voluntary
In Pavlov's principle experiment, the conditioned stimulus was the
tone
The phenomenon of spontaneous recovery suggests that
extinction does not erase a learned association, it only suppresses or interferes with a conditioned response.
A previously neutral stimulus, that through conditioning acquires the capacity to evoke a response, is
a conditioned stimulus.
Last year, Becky went to a psychologist and was cured of her dog phobia. Today, however, while jogging in the park, she was overcome with anxiety when she saw a young man jogging toward her with his golden retriever on a leash. Apparently, Becky's dog phobia
showed spontaneous recovery.
Preparedness suggests that people would MOST easily develop phobias toward
snakes
A dog is first conditioned to salivate to a tone. Then, a light is paired with the tone for a number of trials. Finally, the light is presented alone, and the dog responds. This procedure is known as
higher-order conditioning.
Avoidance conditioning develops through
negative reinforcement.
Maxwell runs a lawn care service; he charges his clients based on the square footage of their yard, rather than charging an hourly rate for his services. In this example, Maxwell is working on
a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement.
Cassie asked her father for a candy bar at the grocery store, and her father bought her the candy bar. If Cassie asks for more candy bars in the future, the candy bar has acted as a
reinforcer.
Businesses often provide good meals and pleasant surroundings when initially meeting with new clients. In these situations, clients may develop positive feelings toward their business host and the company he or she represents. If this occurs, then the pleasant surroundings have functioned as
an unconditioned stimulus.
Your teenaged daughter has not cleaned her room in a month. You go in and begin yelling at her to clean her room. She begins to clean up, and you stop yelling. Your daughter's cleaning behavior can be viewed as responding to
negative reinforcement.
When reinforcement for a behavior is removed, the consequence will be
a brief increase in the frequency with which the behavior is performed, followed by the weakening and eventual disappearance of the behavior.
Pat takes a prescription medication in order to reduce pain; Kelly takes the same medication in order to experience a "drug high." Pat's behavior is reinforced by ____ reinforcement and Kelly's behavior by ____ reinforcement.
negative; positive
Which of the following statements regarding stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination is CORRECT?
For stimulus discrimination to occur, the organism needs experience with both the original CS and the new stimulus
You are watching a pigeon pecking a disk in a small chamber. There is a cumulative recorder connected to the disk. While you are watching, the pigeon is pecking at a slow, steady rate. Based on this information, you can predict that the line on the cumulative recorder will
have a shallow, upward slope.
Bart developed a severe fear of flying when he was piloting a small plane through some severe turbulence. He has been seeing a therapist, and it appears that his fear response has been successfully extinguished. The therapist used a flight simulator to help Bart practice his piloting skills in a safe setting. However, the first time Bart stepped back into a real plane, his fear returned. This example illustrates the phenomenon known as
the renewal effect.
Immediately after being reinforced, a rat on which schedule of reinforcement would show the LONGEST pause before its next response?
Fixed interval
You attended your high school graduation over 20 years ago. You are now trying to recall as much as possible about the graduation ceremonies. Which of the following would be the BEST retrieval cue?
The featured speaker at the ceremony
Norm is studying for his law exam. While he is studying, he is trying to think of as many examples as he can to illustrate key ideas. In this case, Norm is using
elaboration.
As part of a memory test, Taryn was given a list of words that included dog, pail, and hate. Later, she recalled these words as pup, bucket, and loathe. Taryn's errors in recall suggest that she had encoded the original word list
semantically.
Research demonstrates that the recovered memories of sexual abuse most likely to be corroborated are those that are recovered
gradually over a long period of therapy.
Noah had learned to play Mozart's Concerto Number 21 when he was eight years old. He is now 30 and hasn't played the piano for 12 years, but his sister has asked him to play the concerto at her wedding. When Noah sits down to practice, he finds that he has the piece mastered in just a few hours, even though it took him weeks to learn the first time. This example illustrates
relearning as a measure of memory retention.
Interference effects on retention are greatest when the interfering learning is
similar to the material to be remembered.
Allen was recently traded to a new basketball team, and he is having a hard time remembering all the new plays because he keeps using the plays from his former team. Allen's problems illustrate the effects of
proactive interference.
Rehearsal is most beneficial for maintaining information in ____ memory.
short-term
The long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses of a specific neural pathway is referred to as
long-term potentiation.
Penfield's studies suggest that long-lost memories can be elicited through electrical stimulation of the brain. This suggests the possibility that forgetting may be a matter of
retrieval failure.
The profound anterograde amnesia that H. M. experienced after undergoing surgery to control his epilepsy suggests that
the hippocampal complex plays a key role in the consolidation of long-term memories.
____ would best explain your behavior if as you are reading this question you cannot think of the correct term and you say to yourself, "I can't believe I forgot this," when in reality you never knew the answer in the first place.
Pseudoforgetting
Natasha asks Oscar for directions to his house. When he tells her to turn on 4th Street, she asks what color the house is on the corner where she turns. Oscar is surprised that he actually knows the house is blue, since he never really thought about it. In this instance, it is likely that the house color was stored in Oscar's
declarative memory.
The memory improvement strategies of elaboration, using visual imagery, and engaging in deeper processing all involve which memory process?
Encoding
You are absorbed in reading your psychology text when the phone rings. After talking on the phone, you can't remember the last thing you read. This information was lost from ____ memory, because the phone conversation distracted you from ____ the information.
short-term; rehearsing
Nondeclarative memory appears to involve structures such as
the cerebellum and the amygdala.
If you remember the names of the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) by recalling the word "HOMES" as a cue, you are using a(n)
acronym
According to the Featured Study in the text, people MOST likely experience failures in destination memory because they are _________ when telling something to someone else.
self-focused
A multilevel classification system based on common properties among items is called
a conceptual hierarchy.
Meredith is trying to memorize the various eras and periods in the geologic table. She begins by memorizing the Cenozoic, Mesozoic, and Paleozoic as three eras. She then memorizes the three periods from the Cenozoic, the three periods from the Mesozoic, and the six periods from the Paleozoic. Meredith's method of organizing the material she is trying to remember illustrates the concept of
conceptual hierarchies.
Dr. Sciorro believes that because the majority of children acquire language without any effort, there must be a biological mechanism that facilitates language learning. Dr. Sciorro's views of language development most closely mirror those of
Noam Chomsky.
The hypothesis that one's language determines the nature of one's thought is the
linguistic relativity hypothesis.
Kareem is working on a practical problem with his 16-year-old son, Josh, and his 8-year-old daughter, Lisa. They don't have the right tools for the job, and they need to come up with a creative solution that uses the items they have available. Based on research findings into the prevalence of functional fixedness, you should predict that
Lisa is most likely to come up with a solution because, in general, young children are less vulnerable to functional fixedness.
Since one of the main goals of playing Scrabble is to use your letters to form long words (the longer the word, the more points you score), Scrabble can BEST be described as a game that involves a problem of
arrangement.
According to Pinker and Bloom (1992), if the acquisition of language produced a 1% difference in mortality rates among overlapping Neanderthal and human populations, Neanderthals would have become extinct in
4,000 generations.
You are having a conversation with your psychology professor, and he proposes that people have an inborn predisposition to develop language. Which theorist would agree with his assertions?
Noam Chomsky
A study revealed that people gave higher ratings of a wine when the wine was
more expensive.
Observing the similarities between a new problem to be solved and one you've successfully solved in the past is called
searching for analogies.
Results from studies in which researchers have attempted to teach chimpanzees to use nonverbal language (i.e., sign language or communication boards) indicate that
some chimpanzees have appeared to learn many words and have combined words in appropriate ways.
The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to
estimate the probability of an event based on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.
Which class of problems involves discovering the relations among the parts of the problem?
Inducing structure
Which of the following is a criticism of Skinner's model of language acquisition?
It is unreasonable to expect children to learn an infinite number of sentences by imitation.
Elisa is entering survey data from adult males in a research study. One respondent has listed his height as 6 feet 5 inches, but the occupation is hard to decipher. Elisa thinks it might be basketball player or bank president. She decides to enter basketball player as the occupation. In this case, Elisa
probably relied on the representativeness heuristic to make her decision.
Greeno referred to problems where individuals need to discover the relationships between the elements of a problem as problems of
inducing structure.
If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are evidencing
a mental set.
People often assume that it is necessary to use all the numerical information provided in a problem in order to solve the problem. In reality, numerical information sometimes makes it more difficult to solve a problem because the information
may be irrelevant.
The smallest unit of meaning in a language is
the morpheme.
Kailee has learned the word "kitty," but she uses this word when she is referring to cats, bunnies, squirrels, and other small furry animals. Kailee's use of this word illustrates
overextension.
Working backward is a good strategy to follow when
you have many options available at the beginning of a problem, but few options at the end.
The trial-and-error approach to problem-solving is most effective when
there is a relatively small number of possible solutions.
If a psychological test measures what it was designed to measure, the test has ____. If it also shows measurement consistency, it has ____.
validity; reliability
Contemporary IQ tests characterize intelligence as
consisting of 10-15 primary abilities.
Which of the following is NOT one of the items Galton measured in order to assess intelligence?
Brain size
Research suggests that the amount of time people spend living abroad is positively correlated with
creativity.
Gunnar is 50 years old and only completed the sixth grade when he was in school. For the past 30 years, Gunnar has been a successful fisherman who has five fishing boats. Recently, he took part in an aging study conducted by a university near his home and was told that his IQ score was only 65. Based on the definition for mental retardation provided by the American Association on Mental Retardation, Gunnar
does not meet the definition because he does not show deficits in daily living skills.
If you are told that Philip displays the mental ability typical of an 11-year-old child, you know Philip's ____ is 11.
mental age
Ira has never done well on conventional tests designed to measure reasoning and logical-mathematical abilities, but when new and complex situations arise at his job, he is always the one who seems to come up with novel and effective solutions for the problems. According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, Ira shows
high creative intelligence but lower analytical intelligence.
People with high IQs tend to have ________ in their brains than people with low IQs.
more gray matter and more white matter
The original French intelligence test was revised and renamed the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale by
Lewis Terman.
Psychologists who emphasize that most mildly retarded children come from the lower socioeconomic classes tend to believe that the majority of cases of mental retardation are caused by
environmental factors.
According to Robert Sternberg, intelligence can be divided into three major parts:
analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence.
Criterion-related validity is
estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test.
Dr. Darden is concerned about whether or not the final exam in his physics class accurately measures a student's accumulated knowledge about core concepts from the course. It appears that Dr. Darden is MOST concerned with the
validity of his final exam.
The man responsible for developing the first intelligence tests designed to predict the school performance of children was
Alfred Binet.
If your roommate tries to convince you that the college cafeteria uses leftovers from students' dinner trays to make stew for the next day's lunch by arguing that she has never seen the leftovers actually thrown out, your roommate's argument is using
an appeal to ignorance.
Hydrocephaly may lead to mental retardation because of
a buildup of cerebrospinal fluid that destroys brain tissue.
Shawna's IQ score was calculated using the formula developed by Lewis Terman, and the result was 92. This indicates that
Shawna's chronological age is greater than her mental age.
Where a person's actual IQ score falls within the reaction range is determined by
environmental factors.
Which of the following statements corresponds MOST closely to the position on ethnic differences in average IQ scores presented by Herrnstein and Murray in The Bell Curve?
Ethnic differences in average IQ scores are substantial and are partly genetic in origin.
The consensus among MOST researchers is that the heritability of intelligence is
around 50%.
At the end of her calculus course, Mary takes a test to determine how well she has mastered the material. Her calculus test is primarily
an achievement test.
When Francesca took the ACT assessment this year, she was allowed to use a graphing calculator on the mathematics portion of the exam. Her older sister is surprised, because when she took the test six years ago, calculators were not allowed for any portion of the exam. This suggests that
it would be difficult to meaningfully compare Francesca's score with the score her sister obtained.
Which of the following statements regarding differences in IQ is NOT supported by research findings?
The average difference in IQ between minority groups and Caucasians is largely a function of genetic factors.
Following the death of their parents ten years ago, identical twins Glenda and Brenda were placed in an understaffed orphanage. Brenda remained in the orphanage, while Glenda was adopted by a loving middle-class couple. Which of the following would be LEAST likely to occur?
Brenda will have an IQ near the upper limit of her reaction range
When Charmaine was 10 years old, she completed the original Binet-Simon scale. She answered all the questions that a typical 6-year-old would answer, but none of the questions a typical 7-year-old would answer. Based on this information, Charmaine's mental age would be
6 years.
The type of intelligence that involves applying acquired knowledge to solve problems is known as
crystallized intelligence.
Galton attempted to measure intelligence in order to demonstrate that intelligence was determined by
heredity.
In convergent thinking, one attempts to
narrow down a list of alternatives to solve a problem.
Which of the following statements corresponds most closely to Arthur Jensen's position on ethnic differences in average IQ scores?
IQ differences are a function of the relative nature of the gene pool for different ethnic groups.
Some critics argue that ____ use of the term "intelligence" is so broad, encompassing virtually any valued human ability, that it makes the term almost meaningless.
Howard Gardner's
In 1969, Arthur Jenson suggested that
ethnic differences in IQ are largely due to genetic factors.
According to Howard Gardner, IQ tests have generally emphasized which of the following?
Verbal and mathematical skills
Walter has taken a test that attempts to assess his interests and attitudes. Walter has MOST likely taken
a personality test.
Supporting an argument by misusing a general lack of knowledge or information concerning an issue is referred to as the
appeal to ignorance fallacy.
Which of the following statements regarding giftedness and achievement in life is MOST accurate?
The vast majority of children selected for gifted school programs do not achieve eminence as adults.
Which of the following is NOT one of the eight types of intelligence proposed by Gardner?
Emotional
Monica recently completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and was told that her deviation IQ score fell at the 50th percentile. This means that
Monica's IQ score would be 100.
Information about where a particular score on a test falls in relationship to some group is given by
test norms.
Coleman is currently 30 years old. When he was 15 years old, he took an intelligence test and was told that his IQ score was 110. If Coleman retakes the intelligence test now, he would likely discover that his current IQ score
is similar to his previous score of 110.
Which of the following approaches to explaining the origins of homosexuality has received the MOST empirical support?
Biological
An individual's personal perception of his or her overall happiness and life satisfaction is referred to as
subjective well-being.
Recent research into the biological roots of homosexuality has focused on
the organizing effects of prenatal hormones on neurological development.
According to drive theory of motivation, if you drink water when you are thirsty, drinking results in
drive reduction and restores physiological equilibrium.
Which of the following BEST describes the refractory period?
A time following male orgasm during which males are largely unresponsive to further stimulation
Cultural norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotions are called
display rules.
A premise for which no proof or evidence is offered is referred to as
an assumption.
The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that
you can affect how you feel by making a certain facial expression.
Stanley Schachter proposed that obese people are insensitive to _____________ regarding how much food to consume.
internal physiological cues
Which of the following statements regarding lesbian women is FALSE?
Lesbian women rarely change their sexual orientation over the course of their adult years.
Which theorists agree that autonomic arousal precedes the conscious experience of emotion?
James, Lange, and Schachter
Heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure increase sharply during which two phases of the human sexual response?
Excitement and orgasm
Which of the following variables would be considered the BEST predictor of happiness?
Health
Sean and his wife have been kissing and caressing for about 15 minutes. His level of arousal is still increasing, and he has begun to secrete some seminal fluid from the tip of his penis. Based on the phases described by Masters and Johnson, Sean is in the
plateau phase.
Which area of the hypothalamus, containing one group of neurons that are sensitive to incoming hunger signals and another area that responds to satiety signals, has been singled out as especially important in the regulation of hunger?
Arcuate nucleus
Motives are BEST described as ____ that propel people in certain directions.
needs, wants, interests, and desires
The idea that muscles of the face send information to the brain and that this affects the emotion we feel is known as
the facial feedback hypothesis.
When women are in the presence of other women rather than alone, they tend to eat ______ ; when women are in the presence of men rather than alone, they tend to eat ______.
more; less
Recent evidence suggests that the ____ plays a particularly central role in the modulation of emotion.
amygdala
If Ted is a gay man, of the following individuals, who would be MOST likely to also be gay?
Ted's identical twin brother Don
Which type of intelligence involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving?
Crystallized
Harry has always been a vital and active individual, but recently he has begun having difficulty remembering newly learned information after brief periods of time. What disorder are his symptoms indicative of?
Alzheimers disease
A college student who is exploring different subjects and potential majors to help decide on a suitable career can be BEST considered to be in the identity status of
identity moratorium.
Girls exposed prenatally to abnormally high levels of androgens tend to exhibit which of the following during childhood?
Increased male-typical behavior
The characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity of an infant refers to the infant's
temperament.
Differing views on the course and nature of changes in personality across the lifespan illustrates which of the following unifying themes from your text?
Psychology is theoretically diverse.
According to behavioral theory, how do children develop special attachments to their mothers?
The mother becomes a conditioned reinforcer because she is associated with the reinforcing act of being fed.
The assumption of a preoperational child that a car is moving because she is in it is an example of
egocentrism.
Which of the following is associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy?
Conduct problems
Piaget believed that children first become capable of hypothetical thinking during the
formal operational stage.
Starting in the grade-school years, males show a slight advantage over females in ____ skills.
visual-spatial
If an infant's basic biological needs are met by others and sound attachments are formed during the first year of life, the infant will, MOST likely, successfully resolve the crisis associated with the ____ stage.
trust versus mistrust
During the third stage of psychosocial development, the crisis that must be resolved is initiative versus guilt. By this, Erikson meant that the child must learn
how to pursue his or her own interests and also get along with others.
You are in a discussion on attachment behavior, and your friend says that she believes that infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers a protective response from adult females. Which theorist is MOST likely to agree with your friend's views?
John Bowlby
Mercedes takes her one-year-old son, Justice, to visit a daycare center where she plans to enroll him. Justice eagerly explores the playroom as long as Mercedes is present. When his mom leaves the room to fill out some forms, Justice becomes somewhat upset, but when Mercedes returns, he quickly calms down. This is the type of interaction you might observe between a child and a parent who
share a secure attachment relationship.
Cognitive theories of gender-role development emphasize
self-socialization.
Charlie Brown of the "Peanuts" cartoon strip is always trying to kick the football, but he never seems to succeed. According to Erikson, Charlie will most likely develop the basic characteristic of
inferiority.
Ainsworth's strategy for studying infant attachment to caregivers is known as the __________ procedure.
Strange Situation
Systematic problem-solving efforts are associated with individuals in the ____ stage of cognitive development.
formal operational
The third stage of prenatal development, which lasts from two months through birth, is referred to as the
fetal stage.
In the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, the neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are largely centered in the
hippocampal region.
Which of the following factors tends to be accompanied by a drop in ratings of marital satisfaction?
The birth of the first child
The immaturity of the prefrontal cortex has been used to explain
why adolescents engage in risky behavior like reckless driving and unprotected sex.
Chelsey is pregnant and is concerned about taking an over-the-counter medication for her allergies. She should be MOST concerned if her pregnancy is currently at the
embryonic stage.
Preschool children who had secure attachments during infancy tend to display all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
higher levels of moral reasoning.
An inhibited temperament is seen more often in _________ children than in American children.
Chinese
The cell mass that develops from the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterine wall during the ____ stage of prenatal development.
germinal
Gary is an active infant who always seems to be happy. He has a regular schedule, and his parents know that he will sleep through the night without waking, even when he stays overnight with his grandparents. Using the temperament categories outlined by Thomas and Chess, Gary would MOST likely be considered to have
an easy temperament.
The prenatal period refers to
the nine months before birth.
The first mental states that children understand are
desires and emotions.
Which of the following developmental theorists is NOT a stage theorist?
Lev Vygotsky
The inability of a child to mentally "undo" something is referred to as
irreversibility.
Typically, infants with ____ attachments exhibit little, if any, distress when their mothers leave the room.
avoidant
Which type of intelligence tends to remain stable as a person ages?
Crystallized
The concrete operational stage of cognitive development lasts from approximately
age 7 to 11.
In females, early maturation is associated with
greater emotional difficulties.
The local school board in Middletown has decided to introduce standardized assessment tests for all students in the sixth grade. The test has separate sections for math and English. Based on the research into gender differences in cognitive abilities, you should expect that
the female students will score higher than the male students on the English section of the assessment test.
The cephalocaudal trend in physical development suggests that infants will be able to control their
shoulders and arms before they can control their hips and legs.
New research into the process of motor development suggests that
progress is attributed to infants' experimentation and learning the consequences of their activities.
In the middle childhood years, the children who have healthier strategies for coping with stress and fewer problems with hostility tend to be children who
had secure attachments during infancy.