Learning
Relatively permanent change is behavior due to experience. In other words, the process by which humans acquire new behaviors.
Classical Conditioning
Learning to make a reflex response to to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
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Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist, born in 1849-1936, and discovered classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov researched led him to what?
First was researching digestion by using dogs. He would record the amount of salivation (enzyme). Noticed that dogs would also salivate in response to the light before even serving food.
Unconditioned (UCS)
Reflex, NO LEARNING.
Conditioned (CR)
(Conditioning) LEARNING, associates formed.
Acquisition
Repeated pairing of the NS and the UCS; the organism is in the process of acquiring learning.
Classical Condition Concepts
1.) CS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli.
2.) Stimulus Generalization
3.) Stimulus Discrimination
4.) Extinction
Stimulus Generalization
Tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
Stimulus Discrimination
Tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction
Disappearance or wearing of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (In classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforces (in operant conditioning).
Spontaneous Recovery
Reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior.
Conditioned Response
The result when you associate an object with an unconditioned stimulus.
High-Ordered Conditioning
(Step 1) - Occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus
(Step 2)- to become a 2nd conditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Emotional Response (CER)
Emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli. Example: The Case Study of "Little Albert" in the 1900's. May lead to phobias.
Vicarious Conditioning
Classical condition by simply watching someone else respond to a stimulus.Used a lot in advertisement companies.
Conditioned Taste Aversion
Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
Biological Preparedness
Tendency to learn certain associations with only 1 or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning.
Cognitive Perspective
Modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditional stimulus.
Operant Conditioning
Voluntary behavior learned through consequences. Either pleasant or unpleasant. (Skinner)
Operant
Any behavior that is voluntary.
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated. If it is not unpleasant its not repeated. (His work proceeded Skinner).
B.F. Skinner
1.) Born 1904-1990.
2.) Was a Behaviorist.
3.) Studied observable measurable behavior.
4.) Gave "Operant Conditioning" its name
5.) Learning depends on what happens after the response: the consequence.
Reinforcement
Any consequence that makes a response more likely.
2 Types of Reinforcers
1.) Primary
2.) Secondary
Primary Reinforcer
Reinforcer that satisfies a basic biological need or drive. ( hunger, thirst, touch).
Secondary Reinforcer
Reinforcing via pairing with a primary reinforcer. such as praise, tokens, or gold stars.
Positive Reinforcement
Addition of a pleasurable stimulus. (Giving a dog a treat).
Negative Reinforcement
(Not a BAD thing, just taking AWAY).
Removal, escape, or avoidance of a unpleasant stimulus.
Example: Taking aspirin for a headache is negatively reinforced: removal of the headache.
Partial Reinforcement Effect
A response that is reinforced after some -but not all - correct responses tends to be very resistant to extinction.
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcement of each and every correct responce
Schedules of Reinforcement: Key Terms
1.) Fixed
2.) Interval
3.) Ratio
4.) Variable
Fixed
Set number or time interval, doesn't vary. (Unchanging).
Interval
Involves a period of time. (Time interval).
Ratio
Involves a number of responses. (Actions).
Variable
Changeable number of time period. (Changes).
Fixed Ratio (FR)
Number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same.
Variable Ratio (VR)
Number of responses required varies for each event. Rapid rate without pauses.
Fixed Interval (FI)
Always same time before reinforcement opportunity. Long pauses after reinforcement. Example: Getting a paycheck every month.
Variable Interval (VI)
Reinforcement possibilities after varying amounts of time. Slower, steady, rate without pauses. Example: Fishing or texting waiting on something you are expecting.
Punishment
Any consequence that makes a response less frequently. Opposite of reinforcement.
Drawbacks of Severe Punishment
1.) Creates FEAR & ANXIETY.
2.) May encourage LYING to avoid punishment.
3.) May cause AVOIDANCE of the punisher instead of the behavior being punished.
4.) MODELING OF AGGRESSION
Making Punishment More Effective
1.) Immediate - As soon as possible.
2.) Consistent - If they commit the same behavior or disobedience they should always get punished.
3.) Paired with Reinforcement to correct the right behavior.
Shaping
Reinforcement of simple steps leading to a desired complex behavior.
Successive Approximation
Small steps, one after another, that lead to a particular goal behavior.
Extinction Behavior
Involves the elimination of a response from learners repertory through non-reinforcement. Occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced.
Example: One way to deal with a child's temper tantrum is to ignore it;lack of reinforcement for the tantrum behavior will eventually result in extinction.
Generalization
Involves performing some response to a slightly different stimulus.
Example: The dog is showed to bark when the piano key is struck. Similar sounds make the dog bark as well.
Instinctive Drift
Animals conditioned behavior reverts to genetic patterns. Instinctive behavior in animals is resistant to conditioning or modification.
Example: Raccoon washing their food and Pigs rooting. (digging with their snouts).
Behavior Modification
The use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about the desired behavior.
Token Economy
Type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens.
Biofeedback
Use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses such as blood pressure and relaxation under voluntary control.
Neurofeedback
Relatively a newer biofeedback. Provides feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior.
Cognitive Learning Theory
"black box" = inside the mind. Focused on observable behavior during the 1950's & 1960's. Introduced by Edward Tolman
Edward Tolman
Early Cognitive Scientist. Believed that animals could learn about their environment that they could later use in a flexible manner to solve problems. Animals, formed a "cognitive map" to use when roaming their environments. Thought animals could learn without the need of reinforcement: Latent Content. Known for his experiment with 3 groups of rats in a maze.
Latent Content
Learning that remains hidden until its application is useful.
Insight Learning
The sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly. Also referred as "Aha" learning. Discovered by Wolfgang Kohler while studying chimpanzees. Chimpanzees are trial-and-error learners. Cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone.
Learned Helplessness
Tendency to fail to act to escape from a aversion situation because of a history of repeated failures. Began in 1967 and eventually lead to a theoretical explanation of depression. Marlin Seligman proposed this from her experiment of stubborn dogs.
Observational Learning
Learning by watching a model behave. Involves concept of vicarious reinforcement. "Bobo Doll" experiment by Albert Bandura. Showed a clip to kids of adults beating a punch bag shaped as a clown and demonstrated the same results.
Learning/Performance Distinction
Learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.
4 Elements of Observational Learning Proposed by Albert Bandura
Attention, Memory, Imitation, and Desire/Motivation.
*Use acronym A.M.I.D. to remember.