Define "learning" and explain what habituation and sensitization are and how they relate to the concept of learning.
Learning: the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.
Habituation: a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding.
Sensitization: a simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads t an increased response to a later stimulus.
What is classical conditioning? Explain it in terms of the US, UR, CS, and CR.
Classical Conditioning: a type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US): something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism.
Unconditioned Response (UR): a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with a US.
Conditioned Response (CR): a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus.
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List and describe the conditioned and unconditioned elements of Pavlov's experiments with the dogs, and explain how they (and perhaps your own pets) realize when it is time to eat?
1. Before conditioning: Unconditioned Stimulus (US)- food, Unconditioned Response (UR)- salivation
2. Before conditioning: Neutral Stimulus- ringing bell, No Unconditioned Response- no salivation
3. During conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- ringing bell + Unconditioned Stimulus (US)- food, Unconditioned Response (UR)- salivation
4. After conditioning: Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- ringing bell, Conditioned Response (CR)- salivation
Describe the basic principles of Classical Conditioning: acquisition, second-order conditioning, generalization, discrimination, extinction, and spontaneous recovery. Are you able to come up with an example of each (from either your real life experiences or from an experiment you've seen or read about) to help you picture the concepts better?
Acquisition: the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together.
Second-order Conditioning: conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure.
Generalization: the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition.
Discrimination: the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli.
Extinction: the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US.
Spontaneous Recovery: the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
Describe the Little Albert experiments by John Watson, and be able to label the US, UR, CS, CR, and tell why Albert began to fear the rat.
Unconditioned Stimulus: the loud sound, paired with a Conditioned Stimulus: the presence of the rat, the CS all by itself was sufficient to produce the Conditioned Response: a fearful reaction
What is Operant Conditioning? How is it different than Classical Conditioning?
Operant Conditioning: a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.
What is Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect?
Law of Effect: behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated.
What is B.F. Skinner's operant chamber (aka Skinner Box) and what was it used for?
Skinner Box: a rat, pigeon, or other suitably sized animal is placed in this environment and observed during learning trials that use operant conditioning principles.
Describe positive and negative reinforcements and positive and negative punishments. Come up with an example of each of these to help you understand these concepts better.
Positive Reinforcement: when stimulus is presented, increases the likelihood of the behavior.
Negative Reinforcement: when stimulus is removed, increases the likelihood of behavior.
Positive punishment: when stimulus is presented, decreases the likelihood of the behavior.
Negative punishment: when stimulus is removed, decreases the likelihood of behavior.
Why is reinforcement more constructive than punishment in learning behavior?
Both positive and negative reinforcements lead to an increase of the likelihood that the behavior will happen again, both of the punishments result in a decrease of the likelihood that the behavior will happen.
What are the 4 schedules of reinforcement? Think of an example of how each would be used?
Fixed-interval schedule (FI): an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcers are presented at fixed-time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.
Variable-interval schedule (VI): an operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement.
Fixed-ratio schedule (FR): an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made.
Variable-ratio schedule (VR): an operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses.
Describe how observational learning takes place, and explain why it might make a younger sibling appear to learn faster than a newborn.
Observational learning: a condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others. The younger sibling has more than likely experienced the action, and the newborn has not.
Describe the Albert Bandura "Bobo doll" experiment, and tell what the experiment showed about children and their aggressive behavior.
An adult model, someone whose behavior might serve as a guide for others, was then led into the room and seated in the opposite corner, where there were several other toys, including a Bobo doll. The adult played quietly for a bit but then started aggressing toward the Bobo doll. When the children who observed these actions were later allowed to play with the same toys including the Bobo doll, they were more than twice as likely to interact with it in an aggressive manner as a group of children who hadn't observed the aggressive model.
Children who were exposed to an adult model who behaved aggressively toward a Bobo doll were likely to behave aggressively themselves. This behavior occurred in the absence of any direct reinforcement. Observational learning was responsible for producing the children's behaviors.
What is implicit learning? How can you learn something without even being aware of it? (And why doesn't that work well with final exam materials?)
Implicit learning: learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition.
Learning:
Habituation and sensitization
Classical Conditioning:
Unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
Principals of Classical Conditioning:
Acquisition, second- order conditioning, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination
Operant conditioning:
Law of Effect; Skinner Box; positive and negative reinforcement; positive and negative punishment.
Schedules of Reinforcement:
Fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, and variable interval
Observational Learning:
Observational learning, the Bo Bo doll, mirror neurons
Implicit Learning:
B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and Albert Bandura.
If a stimulus is repeatedly presented, and as a result there is a gradual decrease in responding this is known as
Habituation
When a stimulus is presented, and its presentation leads to an increased response of a later stimulus, this is known as
Sensitization
Classical conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response. The stimulus that naturally produces a response is known as a(n) _______ stimulus.
Unconditioned
In Pavlov's dog salivation experiments, when the dog salivated at the plate of food, the salivation was a(n) ______ response.
Unconditioned
A previously neutral stimulus, after it has been paired with a US, will begin to produce a reliable response. This previously neutral stimulus has bow become a(n) _______ stimulus.
Conditioned
If Pavlov's dog is salivating to the sound of a bell, the salivation to the bell sound is called a(n) ____________ (two word answer).
Conditioned response
Pavlov trained his dogs to salivate at a black square that was presented along with the now reliable CS of a tone. The black square was never associated with the food, yet the conditioned response of salivating occurred anyway. This process is called
Second-order conditioning
If you observe the CR even though the stimulus is a little different from the CS that was used in the initial stages of conditioning, this is referred to as
Generalization
Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a tone. If the dogs respond to only the specific tone they were conditioned to, and not to any other similar sounding tones, this is called
Discrimination
If the CS is repeatedly presented without the US, the learned response will eventually fade. This process is called
Extinction
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner conducted studies on a famous infant named (two words) ____________ to show that fear can be classically conditioned.
Little Albert
If a puff of air into your eye naturally elicits an eye blink response, the puff of air would be a(n) ______________ (two word answer).
Unconditioned stimulus
Negative reinforcements make behaviors ______ likely to happen again (more or less)?
More
Do negative punishments make behaviors stronger or weaker?
Weaker
If an organism's behaviors determine whether it will or won't repeat behaviors in the future, this is called __________. (2 words)
Operant Conditioning
A stimulus or even that increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it is referred to as a(n) ________.
Reinforcer
Reinforcements give after a set amount of time has lapsed are being applied on a (two words) ______________ schedule of reinforcement.
Fixed-interval
In operant conditioning terms, having your driver's license taken away for reckless driving is a ______ punishment
Negative
A ________ schedule of reinforcement is one where the delivery of the reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses, and not after a specific number of responses.
Variable-ratio
The Bo Bo doll was part of an experiment conducted by Albert Bandura to study ________ learning.
Observational