Behavioral perspective
learning defined as the relatively stable, observable changes in a person's actions
Behaviorism
a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable actions and responses
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behaviorist perspective
understanding the causes of behavior requires looking at the environmental factors that produce them
associative learning
learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection between two events
classical conditioning
organisms learn the association between 2 stimuli; results in organisms learn to anticipate events as result
operant conditioning
organisms learn the association between a behavior and consequences (ex. reward)
association
classical and operant conditioning involve learning through
watching and imitation
observational learning involves learning through
observational learning
learning that occurs through observing and imitating
classical conditioning
a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar reponse
reflex
automatic response-stimulus connection (ex: salivation-food, shivering-low temp, coughing-throat congestion)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
stimulus that produces response without prior learning (low temp)
unconditioned response (UR)
an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus (shivering)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after CS and US pairing
acquisition
the initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired
contingency
the CS must not only precede the US closely in time, but it must also serve as a reliable indicator that the US is on its way
contiguity
the extent to which the CS and US occur close together in time
generalization (classical conditioning)
the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response
discrimination
learning to respond to a certain stimuli and not others (in classical conditioning)
extinction
weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent (in classical conditioning)
spontaneous recovery
a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning (in classical conditioning)
conditioned stimulus
a WHITE RAT was used as a __ __ to condition Albert
unconditional response
a LOUD NOISE was used as a _______ to condition Albert to fear a white rat
counterconditioning
a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response
aversive conditioning
form of treatment that involves repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus
habituation
the decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations; explained by classical conditioning
voluntary
operant conditioning is more effective in explaining ______ behaviors
involuntary
classical conditioning most effectively explains how neutral stimuli become associated with ____ behaviors
Thorndike's law of effect
behaviors followed by satisfying outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by frustrating outcomes are weakened
shaping
rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior (operant conditioning)
reinforcement
a stimulus or an event following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again
positive reinforcement
addition of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
negative reinforcement
the removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior
avoidance learning
organism learning that it can altogether avoid a negative stimulus by making a particular response
learned helpfulness
through experience with unavoidable aversive stimuli, an organism learns that it has no control over negative outcomes
primary reinforcer
is innately satisfying and it does not take any learning on the organism's part to make it pleasurable (food)
secondary reinforcer
acquires its positive value through an organisms experience (money)
generalization (operant conditioning)
preforming a reinforced behavior in a different situation
discrimination (operant conditioning)
occurs when an organism responds appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced
extinction (operant conditioning)
occurs when a behavior is no longer reinforced and decreases in frequency
continuous reinforcement (operANT conditioning)
type of reinforcement in which organisms learn rapidly
fixed ratio schedule
reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors
variable interval schedule
reinforces a behavior after an inconsistent and unpredictable amount of times it has elapsed
variable ratio schedule
produces high, steady rates of behavior that are more resistant to extinction than other schedules
negative punishment
removing stimulus (time out)
positive punishment
adding stimulus (spanking)
attention, retention, motor reproduction, reinforcement
the four primary processes involved in observational learning (Bandura's model of observational learning)
retention
a learner encodes the info to reproduce a model's actions
motor reproduction
process of imitating the models actions
goal directed
according to E C tolman, behavior is
latent learning
unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior
insight learning
form a problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden understanding of a problems solution; requires thinking outside box
instinctive learning
tendency of animals to revert to intuitive behavior that interferes with learning
prepardness
the species specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others