In within-subject experiments, each subject's performance is compared with his or her performance during a ______.
baseline period
B.F. Skinner was the first person to record data cumulatively
False
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A cumulative record shows the total number of responses that have occurred in a given period of time as well as the rate at which they occurred
True
Research results with humans usually parallel those with animals.
True
In a cumulative record, learning is indicated by a change in response _______.
rate
Harry teaches an advanced painting class. His goal is to teach students to paint more creatively. Harry will probably measure learning as a change in response _________.
Topography
The first person to use a single-subject reversal design was probably ___________
Galen
The kind of study that is most likely to involve a large number of subjects is one with a ________.
between-subjects design
The person who suggested that to learn how nature works, we must "sit down before fact as a little child," and "be prepared to give up every preconceived notion" was ______.
T.H. Huxley
A person who says, "Everyone knows that...." is referring to _______.
anecdotal evidence
A computer simulation that is useful for teaching certain principles of learning is called _________.
Sniffy the Virtual Rat
Any variable an experimenter manipulates is a(n) ________ variable.
independent
One problem with computer simulations as a substitute for animal research is that ___________.
no one knows what behavior to program until the research has been done
Any variable that is allowed to vary freely is a(n) __________ variable.
Dependent
In group-design experiments, researchers often use _________ to reduce differences among participants.
matched sampling
Balster suggests that inhumane treatment of research animals is __________.
bad science
Marjorie drives a school bus. Sometimes the kids get rather noisy. She decides to play music the kids like through speakers on the bus, but whenever the kids get too noisy she turns the music off. When they quiet down, she turns the music back on. In this way, she hopes to get the kids to make less noise. Marjorie is probably going to measure learning as a change in response _________.
Intensity
A teacher who looks for an increase in the number of correct performances per minute is using _______ as a measure of learning.
Fluency
The kind of experiment that is most likely to require statistical analysis is a(n) _______.
between-subjects experiment
Using an ABA reversal design is rather like using a ________.
light switch
Experimental research on behavior is often said to be artificial. To compensate for this problem, researchers do ________ .
field experiments
One highly readable little book on research methods mentioned in your text is called _________.
Psychological Research: An Introduction
Experiments done in natural settings are called _______.
field experiments
Speed and rate are different terms for the same measure of learning
False
The natural science approach assumes that things are caused only by natural events.
True
An _____________ is something an organism tries to escape or avoid.
Aversive