Adenosine tri-phosphate
A compound composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups that supplies energy for many biochemical cellular processes by undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis
Amino Acid
An organic monomer which serves as a building block of proteins
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Calorie
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 C
Carbohydrate
A sugar in the form of a monosaccharide, disaccharide, of polysaccharide
Chemical Bond
An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, of groups of atoms in a molecule or compound
Chemical Indicator
A substance (as a dye) used to show visually usually by its capacity for color change
Chemical Reaction
Chemical transformation or change; the interaction of chemical entities
Compound
A substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
Covalent bond
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Dehydration Synthesis
A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule
Disaccharide
A double sugar molecules made of two monosaccharides bonded together through dehydration synthesis
Element
The smallest particle of a substance that retains all the properties of the substance and is composed of one or more atoms
Glucose
A monomer of carbohydrate, simple sugar
Homeostasis
The maintance of relativity stable internal physiological conditions
Hydrolysis
A chemical process that splits a molecule by adding water
Ionic Bond
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions
Lipids
One of a family of compounds including fats, phospholipids, and steroids that is insoluble in water
Macromolecule
A type of giant molecule formed by joining smaller molecules which includes proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids
Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Monomer
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer
Monosaccharide
A single sugar molecule such as glucose
Nutrient
A substance that is needed by the body to maintain life and health
Polymer
A large molecule consisting of many repeating chemical units or molecules linked together
Polysaccharide
A polymer of thousands of simple sugars formed by dehydration synthesis
Protein
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids