LAB 1 METRICS, RULES, AND MSDS
LAB 1 METRICS, RULES, AND MSDS
what does MSDS stand for and what does it contain
material safety data sheet; contains all MSDS for a lab; precautions for safety wear (goggles, gloves, etc.), flamability, and toxicity, etc
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rules of the lab
-use gloves when prompted;
-no bags, coats, drinks, or food in lab;
- confine long hair;
-no baggy clothing
benedicts solution is used for detecting
sugars
how do you get a reaction out of benedicts solution?
you must heat it
biuret solution is used for detecting
proteins
what color does biuret solution turn when a protein is present
purple
what color does benedicts solution turn when sugars are present
anywhere from yellow-green-orange-red
control
specimen which all other experimental samples are compared
metric system
nonvarying standard of reference
what is the scale of the metric system from largest to smallest
mega-kilo-__-__-unit-deci-centi-milli-micro-nano
which direction does the decimal move when you are switching to larger degree
left
which direction does the decimal move when you are switching to a smaller degree
right
unit of length
meter
unit of volume
liter
amount of matter
mass
unit of mass
gram
352 cm = __________ mm
3520 mm
12 cm = ________ mm
120 mm
150 km = __________ m
150,000 m
2000 microm = ___________ mm
2
1 mm = ________ m
0.001 m
how many 5 mL injections can be prepared from 1 L of a medicine?
200
450 mL volume of alcohol is __________ L
0.45
1000 mg = ________ g
1 g
1 L = ________ mL
1600 mm
160 cm = __________ mm
0.109 kg
14 km = _________ m
1000 ml
109 g = __________ kg
14000 m
250 m = ___________ km
.250 km
2000 mg = _______ g
2 g
104 km = _________ m
104000 m
480 cm = ________ m
4.8 m
5.6 kg = ________ g
5600 g
8 mm = __________ cm
0.8 cm
5 L = __________ mL
5000 mL
198 g = ___________ kg
0.198 kg
75 mL = __________ L
0.075 L
50 cm = ___________ m
0.5 m
5.6 m = __________ cm
560 cm
16 cm = _________ mm
160 mm
2500 m = __________ km
2.5 km
65 g = ___________ mg
65000 mg
6.4 cm = _________ mm
63 mm
120 mg = _________ g
0.12 g
12.65 m = ____________ km
0.01265 km
LAB 2 GRAPHING, ACCURACY VS. PRECISION, AND PH
LAB 2 GRAPHING, ACCURACY VS. PRECISION, AND PH
what 7 things are the rules of graphing
1. must have a title;
2. x-axis is the independent, chosen by experimenter (time, days, temp, pH, # of trials)
3. y-axis is the dependent, obtained during experiment using the x-axis criteria (usually height, weight, color, volume)
4. label
5. divide into regular intervals
6. intersection = 0 unless otherwise stated
7. first set of date points is a dot, more than one can be in a triangle, circle, square, etc.
accurate
correct, ability of device to deliver specified volume
precise
same/repeatable, ability of device to deliver same volume repeatedly
what experiment did we use to measure accuracy vs. precision
we weighed 10 beakers and measured the same amount of fluid (8.4 mL) into each using two different instruments (graduated cylinder vs. pipette) to get the liquid into the beakers to determine which devise was more accurate and which was more precise
which delivery method was more accurate
pipette
which delivery method was more precise
graduated cylinder
hydrochloric acid HCl
gives away hydrogen; acidic
sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
takes hydrogen ions; basic/alkaline
what does pH refer to
the number of hydrogen ions
what is neutral
water with a pH of 7
solution with more hydrogen ions
pH less than 7 = alkaline
solution with less hydrogen ions
pH more than 7 = acidic
what did we do to test for pH
-we used 9 test tubes and added a few mL of HCl to tube 1;
tube 2,3,4 had 9 mL of distilled water in them;
we used a pipette to transfer 1 mL of HCl to tube 2 from tube 1, mixed, and then transfered 1 mL of solution from tube 2 to tube 3, and the same from tube 3 to tube 4
- in tube 5 we put a few mL of NaOH;
in tube 6,7,8 we put 9 mL of distilled water;
we used a pipette to repeat the steps from the first procedure with the NaOH and then tested the pH of each solution
t/f an acidic solution has more hydrogen ions than OH⁻ ions
true
t/f a solution with a pH of 2 is basic (alkaline)
false; acidic
LAB 3 - THE MICROSCOPE
LAB 3 - THE MICROSCOPE
base
supports the microscope
substage light
located in the base; light passes directly upward through the micrscope
stage
platform the slide rests on while being viewed
condensor
concentrates the light on the specimen
iris diagphragm level
arm attached to the condenser that regulates the amount of light passing through the condenser
coarse adjustment knob
used to focus on the specimen
fine adjustment knob
used for precise focusing once coarse focusing has been completed
head or body tube
supports the objective lens system
arm
vertical portion of the microscope connecting the base and head
ocular
eyepiece; one or two lenses are the superior end of the head or body tube; observations are made through the oculars; magnification is 10x.
pointer
attached to one ocular and can be positioned by rotating the ocular lens
nosepiece
carries three or four objective lenses and permits sequential positioning of these lenses over the light beam passing through the hole in the stage
objective lenses
adjustable lens system that permits the use of a scanning lens, a low power lens, and a high power lens or an oil immersion lens
low power lens
10x magnification
scanning lens
4x magnification
high power lens
40x magnification
oil immersion lens
100x magnification
real image
produced by the objectify lens to magnify the specimen
virtual image
produced by the real image and magnified by the ocular lens; this is what is seen by the eye
TM
total magnification; power of the ocular lens x power of objective lens
resolution
ability to discriminate two close objects as separate
resolving power
determined by the amount and physical properties of the visible light that enters the microscope
field
area you see through the microscope
diameter of field B
( diameter of field A x TM of field A) / TM of field B
depth of field
depth of the specimen clearing in focus
TM of scanning lens
40x
TM of low power lens
100x
TM of high power lens
400x
which microscope parts contribute to the magnification of the specimen?
a. objectives only
b. condenser and oculars
c. oculars and objectives
d. condenser and base
C. oculars and objectives
t/f as you increase magnification the diameter of the field of view decreases
true
when first focusing on a specimen, which objective would you use?
a. 4x
b. 10x
c. 40x
d. 100x
A. 4x
what did we view under the microscope?
cheek cells; thread; letter e
LAB 4- TRANSPORT MECHANISMS AND CELL PERMEABILITY
LAB 4- TRANSPORT MECHANISMS AND CELL PERMEABILITY
differential, or selective, permeability
certain proteins are kept within the cell and others are passed to the exterior
active processes
cell provides energy (ATP) to power the transport process
passive processes
concentration or pressure differences drive the movement
two divisions of passive processes
diffusion and filtration
diffusion
important transport process for every cell in the body
filtration
occurs only across capillary walls
concentration gradient
difference in concentration; movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration
simple diffusion
diffusion of solutes through a differentially permeable membrane
osmosis
diffusion of water through a differentially permeable membrane
facilitated diffusion
certain molecules are able to combine with protein carrier molecules in the plasma membrane and move from one side of the membrane to the other down a concentration gradient; does not require ATP
what experiment did we use to compare diffusion rates?
we used an agar petri dish and put methylene blue in one well and potassium permanganate in another well and measured how far it spread every 15 minutes
agar gel
appears quite solid, primarily 98.5% water; allows free movement of the diffusion dye molecules through it
methylene blue
molecular weight of 320; deep blue in color; small particles
potassium permanganate
purple dye with a molecular weight of 158; larger crystals
What is the relationship between molecular weight and rate of molecular movement (diffusion):
the MB had smaller, lighter crystals, which diffused rapidly. The PP had larger, heavier crystals, which diffused slower.
why did the dye molecules move?
the dye molecules vibrate, bump, bounce off each other
what experiment did we use to observe diffusion through nonliving membranes?
we used dialysis sacs filled with different solutions soaking in distilled water to determine the permeability of the dialysis sacs and what is able to pass through those pores
what are the dialysis sacs comparable to
plasma membrane
describe the dialysis sacs and what they were filled with as well as what solutions they were soaked in
-sac 1: 40% glucose solution into a solution of distilled water
-sac 2: 40% glucose solution into a solution of 40% glucose
-sac 3: 10% NaCl solution into a solution of distilled water
-sac 4: boiled starch solution into a solution of distilled water
what did we use benedicts solution for
to test for the presence of sugars
which sac did we use benedicts solution for
sac 1 to test for the presence of glucose in both the beaker fluid and sac fluid
what solution or reaction were we looking for to tell us if sugar was present and what did we have to do to the beakers after we added the benedicts solution
boil for a few minutes
SOLUTION: if a green, yellow, or red color forms, the test is positive and glucose is present
If it remains the same: the test is negative and no glucose has soaked through
how did we test osmotic diffusion
weigh the initial weight of dialysis sac 2 against the final weight of the dialysis sac to determine whether there was osmosis of the glucose molecules
what did silver nitrate test for?
it tests for the presence of NaCl
what reaction would happen if NaCl was present when we added AgCl
it would turn cloudy and white
what did we use lugol's iodine solution to test for
starch
what would happen to the fluid if starch was present after adding lugol's iodine solution
it would turn black
was starch able to flow through the dialysis sac?
no, the molecules were too large to pass through
name the substances that were able to pass through the dialysis bag
NaCl and glucose
t/f molecules, on their own and without the use of energy, move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
false
t/f molecules move through a gel at different rates based on their molecular weight
true
LAB 5- PROPERTIES OF ENZYMES
LAB 5- PROPERTIES OF ENZYMES
catalysts
chemical substances which control the rates at which reactions occur by lowering the energy of activation; can be used repeatedly to bring about the same reaction
substrate
chemical substance (reactant) for which the catalyst has an affinity, meaning that the substrate physically fits a particular part of the catalyst called the active site
most enzymes are ___________
proteins
what experiment did we use to test the properties of enzymes?
we used a mashed up potato with buffer added to it that we centrifuged and then put in the spectrophotometer which measured the absorbance of the reaction, which we measured every 20 seconds and recorded
substrate in this experiment was
catechol which is white or clear and comes from a bottle
the enzyme (aka extract) in this experiment was
catechol oxidase from the potato
the product in this experiment was
oxidized catechol
the buffer in this experiment was (in the beginning)
pH 5, used to help the enzymes dissolve into it
what did we do in our first set of reactions with the extract?
we had a control and then dilute, medium, and concentrated enzyme extract to measure the absorbance
spectrophotometer
passes a beam of light through the tube and measures how much light is absorbed determining the absorbance of the reaction
______ reaction = ________ color = ________ absorbance
more; more; more
we graphed our results and how did we pick which enzyme concentration to use for our next experiment?
we used the amount of enzyme that gave the greatest and most linear change in absorbance from 0-1 in two minutes
what did we alter about our next experiment after we chose which extract concentration to use?
the pH of the buffer between 3, 5, and 7
did we use a control at all for any of these reactions
yes, for every new thing that we tested, we used a control test tube to balance the spectrophotometer
what did changing the pH in the enzyme show us
the effects of enzyme activity in different types of pH's
how did we determine what buffer to use for our next experiment
we used the one which gave us the highest absorbance
what did our next experiment include
testing the effects of different temperatures on enzyme activity
how did we test this?
we prepared our pH solution, enzyme concentration, and substrate in five different test tubes and then placed them in different temperatures
what temperatures did we place our test tubes in?
5°C (refrigerate), 22°C (room temperature), 37°C (body temperature), 50°C (hot)
what was the name of the enzyme used?
a. catechol
b. catechol oxidase
c. oxidized catechol
d. catecholesterase
b. catechol oxidase
waht was the name of the substrate
a. catechol
b. catechol oxidase
c. oxidized catechol
d. catecholesterase
a. catechol
how might non optimal pH or temperature affect an enzyme?
it affects the activity of the enzyme by denaturing it and changing its shape; which affects the outcome of the product
in every set of tubes you made, there was a tube with all ingredients except the enzyme. what was the purpose of this tube?
it was the 'blank' or control that we used to balance the spectrometer and compare our results to
t/f the higher the number on the spectrophotometer absorbance display, the more the reaction has occured
true
LAB 6- REFLEXES
LAB 6- REFLEXES
intrafusal muscle fibers
detect stretch
extrafusal muscle fibers
contract muscle
ipsilateral
info enters and exits spinal cord on same side
contralateral
info enters and exits spinal cord on opposite side
monosynaptic
1 synapse in reflex arc
polysynaptic
two or more synapses in reflex arc
reflex
stimulus response sequence (reflex arc)
reflexes can be either
innate or adaptive
spinal reflex
skeletal muscle reflex involves the spinal cord
integrating center
spinal cord
spinal reflexes
involuntary skeletal muscle responses
stimulus
triggering event
information about the ________ is detected by special skeletal muscle fibers called _______________
stimulus
intrafusal muscle fibers
information is then carried to the spinal cord via ___________ that enter the spinal cord via its dorsal roots
afferent neurons
in the spinal cord, information can move through one or more segments and can involve __________
interneurons
if there are no interneurons involved
monosynaptic
if there is one or more interneurons
polysynaptic
information leaves the spinal cord through the ventral roots and is carried to the skeletal muscle by way of
efferent neurons
__________________ respond to this information by contracting
extrafusal skeletal muscle fibers
If info exits and enters on the same side of the spinal cord:
ipsilateral
If info exits and enters on opposite sides of the spinal cord
contralateral
Knee jerk or patellar reflex
patellar reflex: monosynaptic reflex
-tests the function of spinal cord segments L2, L3, and L4 and the femoral nerve
-normal response: contraction of the qaudriceps femoris
-important reflex for balance and posture
-abnormal response: known as westphal's sign
ankle jerk of achilles reflex
-tests the function of spinal cord segments S1 and S2 and the medial popliteal nerve
-normal response involves jerking of the foot towards its plantar surface
biceps jerk
-tests the function of spinal cord segments C5 and C6 and the musculocutaneous nerve
-normal response involves contraction of the biceps muscle and flexation of the elbow
-can be detected beneath the examiner's thumb
triceps jerk
-tests the function of spinal cord segments C6 and C7 and the radial nerve
-normal response involves contraction of triceps muscle and extension of the elbow
plantar's reflex, babinski sign
-nociceptive response
-triggered by stimulation of pain receptors
-polysynaptic
-involves several segments of the spinal cord
-involves tibial nerve and segments L4, L5, S1, S2 of the spinal cord
-normal reflex has the toes curving inward while the foot everts
-abnormal reflex is known as babinski sign
-demonstrated by dorsiflexion of the toes
-babinski is normal in infants due to incomplete myelination of nerves
t/f abnormal or absent reflexes may be indicative of nervous system dysfunction
true
t/f spinal reflexes are involuntary skeletal muscle responses which occur without involving the brain
true
which of the following tests the radial nerve?
a. ankle jerk/ achilles reflex
b. knee jerk/ patellar reflex
c. triceps jerk
d. plantar's reflex
c. triceps jerk
t/f in an infant, the normal plantar reflex is to curve the toes toward the sole of the foot (plantar flex)
false
how many neurons are involved in a monosynaptic reflex arc?
a. 0
b. 2
c. 1
d. it differs
b. 2
stimulus → ______________________________
receptor → ______________________________
afferent pathway → ____________________________
integrating center → ___________________________
efferent pathway → ____________________________
effector → ___________________________
response → _________________________
receptor
intrafusal muscle fiber
afferent sensory neurons
spinal cord
efferent motor neuron
extrafusal muscle fibers
movement of limb
are responses positive or negative when someone reacts?
negative
what nerve does the biceps jerk test
musculocutaneous
what nerve does the triceps jerk test
radial nerve
what nerve does the knee jerk test
femoral nerve
what nerve does the ankle jerk test
medial popliteal nerve
LAB 7- REACTION TIME
LAB 7- REACTION TIME
reaction time
time it takes to respond to a stimulus
-related to the time it takes for information about the stimulus to get to the integrating center involved in analyzing the stimulus
________________ → _________________ → __________________→ ___________________→
_________________→ _________________→ __________________
stimulus→ receptor→ afferent pathway→ integrating center→ efferent pathway→ effector→ response
where are receptors located
in muscles
what does the afferent pathway do
sends messages to the integrating center
what does our efferent pathway do
carry messages from CNS to nerve
what does the effector do and where is it located
in the organ and it produces the response
what did we do to test the reaction time?
we tested distracted and undistracted reaction times by having a student wear headphones and everytime a click was heard, they press a button. we analyzed their results at the end
what did we do for test one in undistracted reaction times?
1. pseudo-random stimuli at pseudorandom intervals 10 clicks
2. pseudo-random stimuli-clicks at pseudorandom internals
3. fixed interval trial, clicks will come at intervals
4. fixed interval trial; clicks come with fixed intervals
what did we do for test two in distracted reaction times
1. pseudo-random stimuli at pseudorandom intervals 10 clicks
2. pseudo-random stimuli-clicks at pseudorandom internals
3. fixed interval trial, clicks will come at intervals
4. fixed interval trial; clicks come with fixed intervals
what is the t-test used for
to compare different sets of data using excel
what do the results look like from a t-test
between 0-1
the answer is a percentage
if a result from a t test was below 0.05 that means the results were
significantly different
95% sure they are not similar
if a result from a t test was above 0.05 that means the results were
not significantly different; meaning that the tests were overlapping
what is the effector
the skeletal muscle which performs the response action
t/f hearing the noise in the headphones and reacting by pushing the button is an example of a spinal reflex
false, these messages were sent to the brain
t/f the data from the psseudo-random interval segments allowed you to determine if reaction time changed due to learning
false
how is the t-test different from the average
the t-test compares two different variations of data whereas the mean is just one set of data. the t test also is able to compare against distracted and undistracted and intervals vs. pseudo-random intervals
LAB 8- PHYSICAL FITNESS
LAB 8- PHYSICAL FITNESS
what tests did we do to analyze physical fitness
body skin fold measurement
aerobic fitness
electromyography
what did we do to test body skin fold measurement
we used skin fold calipers to test three places on the body to determine density and % fat
what did we do to test aerobic fitness
we used a step stool and a metronome to set the pace for five minutes of exercise; after five minutes of consistent exercise, we timed the pulse for 15 seconds after the person sat for 15 seconds after exercise
what did we do to test electromyography
we measured grip strength in order to determine fatigue and muscle unit recruitment with the biopac machine and dynomometer
where did we place the electrons for the electromyography of the grip test
- white lead: medial superior forearm
- red lead: lateral inferior forearm
- black lead: medial inferior forearm closest to palm
what did we do on segment one where we tested motor unit recruitment
-clench for 2 seconds, release and wait for two seconds
-try to begin with your assigned increment of force (5, 10, 20 kg)
-increase increment of force by (5, 10, 15; 10, 20, 30; or 20, 40, 60) until maximum clench force is achieved
what did we do on segment two where we tested fatigue
- clench at maximal force until it decreases by 50%
- time to fatigue will vary greatly between individuals
t/f we only tested one arm because the results will be the same for both arms
false; we tested both arms
forearm 1 is the dominant hand
forearm 2 is the other hand
when analyzing, what does the mean display
the average value in the selected area
when analyzing, what does the p-p display
peak to peak
finds the max value in the selected area and subtracts the minimum value found in the selected area
when analyzing, what does the i-beam do
used to select certain areas
when analyzing, what does the value display
the amplitude value for the channel at the point selected by the i-beam cursor
when analyzing, what does the deltaT display
the amount of time in the selected segment
what areas did we test during the skin fold body measurement test
-triceps : halfway between the acromion process of the scapula and olecranon process of the ulna on the dorsum of the arm
-biceps: anterior of the arm, halfway between the greater tubercle of the humerus and the coronoid fossa
-chin: under the chin above the hyoid bone
the accu-measure caliper was used to measure
a. aerobic fitness
b. body composition
c. time until muscle fatigue
d. max grip strength
b. body comp
t/f ideally we should have 0% body fat
false
t/f slow steady and longer duration exercise is anaerobic
false
when using the biopac system, what did we measure
grip strenth to determine motor unit recruitment and muscle fatigue
when fatigued, your muscle is unable to produce maximum force because _________ is depleted
ATP
when holding an object, does the number of motor units remain the same? are the same motor units used for the duration of holding the object?
yes, the number of motor units remain the same and when a motor unit gets tired it is able to switch with a resting motor unit in able to last the duration
as you fatigue, the force exerted by your muscles decreases. what physiological processes explain the decline in strength?
creatine phosphate is the first energy source used and when taht burns out, your body has to make ATP which can be a length process and cause the muscle to fatigue.
LAB 9- BLOOD
LAB 9- BLOOD
what determines how red blood is?
the amount of oxygen it is carrying
average volume of blood in males and females
5-6 L in males
4-5 L in females
blood is a type of ___________
connective tissue
what is blood composed of
nonliving fluid matrix (plasma) in which living cells (formed elements) are suspended
what are the three types of formed elements
erythrocytes, white blood cells, platelets
erythrocytes
RBC; sacs of hemoglobin molecules that transport the bulk of oxygen carried in the blood
Biconcave, anucleate disc, salmon colored
how long does it take for erythrocytes to develop
5-7 days
what is the life span of erythrocytes
100-120 days
leukocytes
WBC's; part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system
spherical, nucleated cells
divided into granulocytes and agranulocytes
platelets
function in hemostasis
constitute 45% of whole blood
-discoid cytoplasmic fragments containing granules
-250,000- 500,000 in blood population
-4-5 days to develop
-5-10 days life span
-seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting
-formed in bone marrow
what percentage of blood does plasma take up
55%
what are the types of granulocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
neutrophils
-nucleus multilobed; inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules
-3,000 -7,000 in blood
-6-9 days to develop
-6 hours to a few days in life span
-phagocytize bacteria
-40-70% of leukocyte population
eosinophils
-nucleus bilobed; red cytoplasmic granules
-100-400 in blood
-6-9 days to develop
-8-12 days life span
-kills parasitic worms; destroys antigen-antibody complexes; inactivate some inflammatory chemicals of allergy
-1-4% of leukocyte population
basophils
-nucleus lobed; large blue-purple cytoplasmic granules
-20-50 inb lood
-3-7 days of development
-life span of a few hours to a few days
-release histamine and other mediators of inflammation' contain heparin, an anticoagulant
-least abundant less than 1%
what are the types of agranulocytes
lymphocyte
monocyte
lymphocyte
-nucleus spherical or indented; pale blue cytoplasm
-1,500 - 3,000
-days to weeks to develop
-hours to years life span
-mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
-smallest; abundant in lymphoid tissue
-20-45% of te WBC population
monocyte
-nucleus U or kidney shaped; gray blue cytoplasm
-100-700 in blood
-2-3 days to develop
-months life span
-phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in tissues
-bigger; more abundant in lymphoid tissues
-4-8% of the population
how did we do a white blood cell count
-obtain a microscope and a blood slide
-scan the slide under low power and find the area with the largest number of nucleated WBC
-begin at the edge of the smear and move the slide systematically
-record 100 WBC as they are observed
-percent % = (# observed/total # counted) x 100
-record results as a %
diapedesis
ability to move in and out of blood vessels
amoeboid motion
wander through body tissues to reach sites of inflammation or tissue destruction
what did we do to test hematocrit
we used an alcohol swab to clean a finger, a lancet to prick the finger, and a heparinized capillary tube to collect blood into, clay to seal the end. once filled 3/4 of the way full, we spun in the microhematocrit centrifuge
what did the hematocrit test determine
the percentage of RBC, WBC, and plasma by using a ruler and measuring the length of the RBC/full length x 100
how did we figure out hemoglobin concentration
we used talquist paper and a blood smear to compare it to a chart in order to determine the amount of hemoglobin in the blood
what is blood typing
system of blood classification based on the presence of specific glycoprotein's (antigens) on the otuer surface of the RBC plasma membrane
describe the process for using the blood typing cards
-card is marked A, B, and Rh; anti-A serum, anti-B serum, anti-Rh serum
-drop of blood into each area
-add a drop of anti-A serum into the A spot
-add a drop of anti-B serum into the B spot
-add a drop of anti-Rh serum into the Rh spot
-rock back and forth to combine
-wait a few minutes to see if agglutination occurs
-if clotting appears in an area that means that that area is the blood type you are
-ex. Clotting in B and Rh determines that the person is B+
if all the wells are agglutinated, then the person's blood type must be
AB+
if none of the wells are agglutinated, then the person's blood type must be
O-
agglutination occurs when
antibodies meet their antigens
how can you identify what type of WBC one is?
1. does it have granules or is it smooth?
2. what does the nucleus look like?
what is the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration determine
the concentration of RBC
what is the mean corpuscular volume determine
the average size of the RBC
t/f the hematocrit result tells you the percent of the blood which is made up of erythrocytes
true
t/f blood that is type AB will contain both A and B antigens
true
when performing a blood typing experiment, agglutination occurs in the B well only and that makes the blood:
a. B-
b. A+
c. A-
d. O+
a. B-
LAB 10 - CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
LAB 10 - CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
what is used to record the ECG
biopac
when did we record the student's heart rate
-lying down
-after sitting up
-breathing deeply
-after exercise
where did we apply the electrodes
-white lead: right anterior forearm
-black lead: right leg, medial surface, right above ankle
-red lead: left leg, medial surface, just above ankle
normally, how many electrodes are used on a real ECG
12
describe what we had the student doing while we recorded their heart rate for 120 seconds
-record for 20 seconds while the subject is lying down
-record for 20 seconds after the subject quickly sits up and takes five deep breaths
-record for 20 seconds as the subject takes five deep breaths
-record for 20 seconds after the student has exercised and then sits down
what does ∆T (delta time) measure
the difference in time between start and end select area
what does BPM stand for
beats per minute
what did we analyze
-intervals between R waves (recorded BPM)
-duration of the PR intervals (recorded ∆T)
-duration of ventricular systole (QT wave) (recorded ∆T)
-duration of ventricular diastole (end of T wave to beginning of next R wave) (recorded ∆T)
what does the pump on a blood pressure pump?
inflates the cuff to stop the blood flow in your artery for a few seconds
what does the dial on a blood pressure pump?
numbered dial or a column of mercury can be used to record the bp reading
what does the cuff on a blood pressure pump?
wrapped around the upper arm
what does the valve on a blood pressure pump?
lets some air out of the cuff, which allows the blood flow to start again
what does the stethoscope on a blood pressure pump?
used to hear the sound of blood rushing back through the artery
what is happening when you first hear a thumping noise
it is the sound of systolic blood pressure
what is happening when you no longer hear a noise
that is the diastolic pressure
bp=
sp=
dp=
MAP=
pp=
blood pressure
systolic pressure
diastolic pressure
mean arterial pressure
pulse pressure
what equation do we use to determine BP
SP/DP
what equation do we use to determine PP
SP-DP
what equation do we use to determine MAP
DP + (1/3xPP)
what is tachycardia
when the QRS complex is really fast and close together, about or over 100 bpm
what cardiac event is occurring when you see the p wave in the ECG?
atrial depolarization
when the heart is resting between heartbeats, the pressure experienced by blood vessels is the __________ pressure
diastolic
what does an ECG do
measures the electrical activity from the heart
records activity which as spread into body fluids and reaches the surface
reports the total activity from the heart
what are the waves of an ECG
- p wave: atrial depolarization
- QRS wave complex: ventricular depolarization
- T wave: ventricular repolarization
where is atrial depolarization show on the waves
it does not show because it is masked by the QRS complex
P wave is much smaller than the QRS wave complex because the atria are smaller and weaker than the ventricles
how are abnormalities in cardiac activity determined
by the distance between consecutive QRS complexes
bradycardia
less than 60 bpm
tachycardia
over 100 bpm
describe the heart sounds
-can be heart with a stethoscope
-1st sound = lub = ave valves closing
-occurs at the onset of ventricular contraction
-2nd sound = dub = semilunar valves closing
-occurs at the onset of ventricular relaxation
what is the difference between smooth and turbulent blood flow?
-smooth uninterrupted blood flow does not produce sound
-turbulent blood flow produces sound which can be detected as murmurs
CO=
HV=
SV=
cardiac output
heart rate
stroke volume
what is CO
amount of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute
CO depends on
HR and SV
what is the average CO
5L/min
CO= __________x__________
HV; SV
what is blood pressure
the force exerted by the blood against vessel walls
what does blood pressure depend on and refer to
depends upon the volume of blood and the compliance of the vessel (stretch)
-always refers to pressure in arteries
systolic pressure
max pressure in arteries
occurs as blood is ejected from the heart
normally 110-120 mm Hg
diastolic pressure
min pressure in arteries
occurs as heart relaxes
about 70-80 mm Hg
what is pulse pressure
dif. between systolic and diastolic pressures
what is MAP
mean arterial pressure
average pressure driving blood forward through the vessels
if normal blood pressure is not maintained in the heart and blood vessels experience extra stress, such as when BP is too high in _______________
hypertension
if normal blood pressure is not maintained in the heart and blood vessels experience extra stress, such as when BP is too low in _______________
hypotension
if normal blood pressure is not maintained in the heart and blood vessels experience extra stress, such as when extreme hypotension occurs _______________
circulatory shock
what cardiac event is occuring when you see the P wave in the ECG?
atrial depolarization
when the heart is resting between heartbeats, the pressure experienced by blood vessels is the ___________ pressure
diastolic
t/f turbulent blood flow is audible through a stethoscope
true
LAB 11 - RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
LAB 11 - RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
at what percentage do lungs operate
50%
t/f gas exchange is continuous
true
TV
tidal volume
volume of air entering/exiting lungs during normal, unforced breathing
IRV
inspiratory reserve
max volume of air able to be inspired after the end of a normal inspiration
ERV
expiratory reserve
max volume of air able to be expired after the end of a normal expiration
RV
residual volume
volume of air remaining in lungs after a max expiration
IC
inspiratory capacity
total amount of air able to be inhaled after a normal expiration
FRC
functional residual capacity
total amount of air left in lungs after a normal expiration
what is the formula for IC
IRV + TV
what is the formula for FRC
ERV + RV
VC
vital capacity
total amount of air able to be inhaled after a max expiration
TLC
total lung capacity
volume of air in lungs after a maximal inspiration
what is the formula for VC
ERV + VT + IRV
what is the formula for TLC
VC + RV
FVC
forced vital capacity
forced exhalation of as much air as possible after maximal inhalation
FEV
forced expiratory volume
measures a percent of FVC in a length of time
FEV₁
first second of an exhale
should be 80% or more
obstructive disorders
increased airway resistance
harder to inspire and expire
FEV₁ is less than 80%
asthma, COPD, emphysema
restrictive diseases
decreased lung expansion
decreased TLC and VC
asbestosis and fibrosis
volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a normal exhalation
functional residual
volume of gas inspired or expired during each normal ventilation cycle
tidal volume
total volume of gas in the lungs after a max inhalation
total lung capacity
max amount of gas that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal inhalation
inspiratory reserve volume
volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a max exhalation
residual volume
max volume of gas that can be exhaled after a max inhalation
vital capacity
max volume of gas that can be inhaled after a normal exhalation
inspiratory capacity
max volume of a gas that can forcefully exhaled after a normal exhalation
expiratory reserve capcity
ventilation
act of breathing
ventilatory cycle includes
inhalation or inspiration
exhalation or expiration
in order to determine the vital capacity of a group member we used a formula that included
height and age
VC= 0.041(h) - 0.018(a) - 2.69
what equipment did we use for our experiment
-airflow transducer
-syringe
-disposable filter and mouthpiece
-biopac
what type of breathing did we have our group member do in order to analyze the results
-5 normal breaths
-deep inhale
-exhale completely
-5 normal breaths
what did we use p-p to measure?
tidal volume and vital capacity
what did we use ∆ to analyze?
inspiratory volume and expiratory volume
what is the formula for flow of air into the lungs
F=∆P/R
what does F stand for
flow
what does ∆P stand for
change in pressure
what does R stand for
resistance
what equipment did we use to determine the flow of air?
- calibration syringe/filter
- airflow transducer
- mouthpiece and filter
- biopac machine
what type of breathing did we do in to show the flow of air?
- breathe normally for 3 cycles
- inhale as deeply as possible
- pause
- exhale as quickly and completely as possible
- breath normally for 3 breaths
what did we analyze for this set of data?
the maximal exhale that is 3 seconds in length
what did we use ∆ and p-p for?
vital capacity
what did we select and record?
the first second and recorded the ∆T
two seconds and recorded ∆T
all 3 seconds and recorded ∆T
what is impossible to measure
residual volume
t/f if you add your inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume, the result is your vital capacity
true
t/f an FEV₁ below 80% is abnormal and may indicate the presence of an obstructive respiratory disease
true
LAB 12- DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEIN, AND FAT
LAB 12- DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATE, PROTEIN, AND FAT
what does saliva contain
salivary amylase
what does salivary amylase do?
it is an enzyme that digests starch into sugars
what do stomach secretions contain
pepsin
what is pepsin
an enzyme that hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds of large proteins into smaller peptides
what does pancreatic juice contain
lipase
what is lipase
an enzyme that digests fats emulsified by bile salts into fatty acids and glycerol
what materials did we use for this lab?
- water bath at 37 degrees celcius
- graduated clyinders
- starch solution
- iodine solution (lugol's reagent)
- benedict's reagent
where does digestion begin
digestion of a carb like starch begins in the mouth were it is mixed with saliva containing salivary amylase or ptyalin
what is starch and what happens to it once it begins to be broken down
starch is a long chain of repeating glucose subunits
it is hydrolyzed by amylase into shorter polysaccharide chains and then into disaccharide maltose
describe the procedure we used
we used four test tubes
-tube 1: 2 mL of distilled water
-tube 2: 2 mL of saliva/amylase
-tube 3: 2 mL of saliva/amylase and 3 drops of concentrated HCl
-tube 4: 2 mL of boiled saliva
-add 4 mL of cooked starch to each of the four tubes
-incubate all tubes for one hour
-split the tubes into 4 additional tubes
how did we test for complex sugars?
-test set 1 for complex sugars by adding a few drops of iodine solution (lugol's reagent)
-positive test is shown by purplish black color
how did we test for starch?
-test set 2 for starch by adding 5 mL of benedict's reagent to each of the tubes and immerse them in a water bath for 2 minutes
-no change means no maltose
-green, yellow, orange, red indicates presence of maltose
what was the name of the enzyme used?
amylase
amylase is found in our
a. stomach
b. small intestine
c. saliva
d. all of the above
c. saliva
t/f when testing with iodine, a black color indicates the presence of complex sugars
true
t/f the produce of the reaction that occurred in this experiment was a polysaccharide
false
what was the HCl and boiling supposed to show in the experiment?
to see if acid or high heat would denature the enzyme and make it unable to work afterwards