Associative learning
the process by which an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned.
Observational learning:
a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating a behavior executed by others.
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how do associative and observational learning differ
They differ because during observational learning, you just watch someone do a behavior and are able to do it yourself but with associative learning you have to connect two things with each other in order to complete another task having to do with the stimuli
B.F Skinner
came up with operant conditioning.
Operant conditioning:
A type of associative learning that involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior. It focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behavior
shaping:
a behavioral term that refers to gradually molding or training an organism to perform a specific behavior by reinforcing responses that are similar to the desired response/behavior.
Thorndike's law of effect
rewarded behavior is repeated
positive reinforcement:
adding something in order to increase behavior
negative reinforcement:
removing something you don't like in order to increase behavior
primary reinforcers:
occur naturally, do not have to be learned; a reinforcer that is biologically pre-established to act as reinforcement; often evolutionary and aid in survival (food,sleep,water,sex etc)
secondary reinforcers:
the reinforcer reinforces behavior after being associated with a primary reinforcer (ex: money, gold stars, etc)
immediate reinforcers:
given directly after the behavior is exhibited
delayed reinforcers:
certain amount of time has passed before you give the reward.
continuous reinforcers:
every single time a behavior in exhibited the reinforcement is delivered.
partial reinforcement
not always reinforcing the behavior
fixed-ratio schedule:
reinforce behavior after a set number of responses (produces, steady rate or response with a short pause after reinforcer is delivered)
variable-ratio schedule:
provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses (produces high, steady rate of response) most successful
Positive punishment:
present an aversive stimulus after a behavior occurs
negative punishment:
withdrawing something desirable for the purpose of decreasing behavior.
what is the difference between punishment and reinforcement?
with punishment, you're trying to decrease a behavior and with reinforcement you're trying to increase a behavior.
when is punishment most effective
when punished after every time a negative behavior is exhibited.
what are some issues that can arise from punishment
if you yell at a child in a public place after they exhibit a negative behavior, they could keep yelling because they are receiving attention which is what they want.The yelling at the child may be encouraging the child to keep screaming because they are getting desired attention.
what type of reinforcement schedule is linked to the highest number of responses and the most consistent responding
Varibable-ratio schedule
what is the HEROrats program and how does operant conditioning play a role in detecting land mines
rained via operant conditioning and shaping; when the rats are put in a maze with explosive material and they smell it (signaling by scratching) they are rewarded with a loud clicking noise and a treat. After being trained in a maze for several years they are sent into fields to track land mines and TB.
Latent learning:
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
how does latent learning lend to the idea that cognition is important in operant conditioning
because we need to remember the behaviors we see in order to perform them later.
how does intrinsic motivation differ from extrinsic motivation
intrinsic is when the desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. extrinsic is when the desire to perform a behavior to receive external rewards or avoid punishment.
what id the difference between classical and operant conditioning
Operant conditioning is when organisms associate their own behavior with consequences and classical conditioning is when organisms associate different stimuli that they do not control and respond automatically.
what the easiest way to remember the difference between classical and operant conditioning
automatic behavior it's classical. If you choose it to avoid a punishment or get a reward it's operant.
Observational learning
a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating a behavior executed by others.
modeling:
Watching someone do a behavior and then be able to do it after watching it
mirror neurons:
provide neural basis for how observational learning occurs; when you perform a specific task, these neurons fire; when you observe someone else performing the same task, those same neurons fire
albert bandura:
developed a social learning theory that people can learn through observation,
what are to core concepts of bandura's social learning theory
mental states are important to learning, and learning does not necessarily lead to behavior change
what is the bobo doll experiment
scientists placed a bobo doll in a room with adults and children. The adults were angry so they started to beat up the doll while the kids were watching. In another group adults and children were placed in a room with a doll as well, but this time when the adults were angry they didn't do anything to the doll. When the two groups of kids were brought together and the scientist did something to make them mad, only the kids who observed the adults hitting the bobo doll hit the doll themselves because they were angry. The kids who didn't see the adults beating up the doll didn't beat it up either.
what does the research done regarding observational learning show about violence on television
people (specifically children) who watch more violent movies, video games etc. tend to be less sympathetic and more irascible due to the fact that they are desensitized to violence.