A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body. There are 4 basic types of neurons:
Bipolar: A bipolar cell is a type of neuron which has two extensions. Bipolar cells are specialized sensory neurons for the transmission of special senses. As such, they are part of the sensory pathways for smell, sight, taste, hearing and vestibular functions. Unipolar:
A unipolar neuron is a type of neuron in which only one protoplasmic process (neurite) extends from the cell body. Most neurons are multipolar, generating several dendrites and an axon. Unipolar neurons that begin as bipolar neurons during development are known as pseudounipolar neurons. Multipolar
A multipolar neuron (or multipolar neurone) is a type of neuron that possesses a single (usually long) axon and many dendrites, allowing for the integration of a great deal of information from other neurons. These dendritic branches can also emerge from the nerve cell body. Multipolar neurons constitute the majority of neurons in the brain and include motor neurons and interneurons.
Pyramidal: Pyramidal neurons (pyramidal cells) are a type of neuron found in areas of the brain including cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and in theamygdala. Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. Pyramidal neurons were first discovered and studied by Santiago Ramón y Cajal.