As one of many problems currently being experienced by the National Health Service, this essay will demonstrate how smoking and its life-threatening consequences have an effect on people. Firstly, in order to achieve a better understanding of a stated problem, this paper will provide a general idea about NHS in Great Britain and Poland. Secondly, it will demonstrate the idea of smoking in general, reasons for individuals to smoke, and also the variation of negative aftermaths caused by smoking addiction.
Finally, this essay will also discuss the Government's Policies on declining smoking addictions in Great Britain and Poland followed by the conclusion on National Health Services in mentioned countries. This part of essay will briefly explain what the NHS is and what is the purpose of its existence. National Health Service, established by the National Health Service Act 1946 on 5 July 1948, is now the largest organisation in Europe. In United Kingdom it is a care system that provides all citizens with for example dentistry, in-patient care, long-term healthcare and primary care.
It is recognised as one of the best health services in the world by the World Health Organisation. The NFZ, the acronym standing for 'Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia', is the Polish version of the National Health Service. Established on 27 August 2004, the NHS in Poland has a similar purposes to that in Great Britain, for example promoting healthy life styles and providing people with a sufficient health care. Since smoking tobacco products is a significant problem occurring at present within the National Health Service.
This part of essay will give a brief explanation of this process in order to achieve and expand a better understanding of smoking itself. Tobacco smoking is nothing more than the act of simultaneously burning and inhaling the dried leaves of the tobacco plant. There are many reasons for people to smoke. Individuals can use tobacco products for pleasure, social purposes or to satisfy physical cravings. The cultural assessment enfolding smoking tobacco goods has altered over time, and from the variety of places.
For some people the cigarette smoke was holy, elegant, pure or even exalted, and for other individuals it was sinful, vulgar, and deadly health hazard. Only recently, smoking appeared in a decidedly negative light, due to its concealed, gradual and fatal consequences. A cigarette is the only legal drug in the world, although tobacco smoke itself contains over 50 poisonous carcinogen (causing cancer) substances, like for example nicotine, an addictive stimulant, which relieves the feeling of confusion, anxiety and insomnia which is a sleeping disorder that causes persons mind to be restless during the night.
Heavy smokers are, unlike non-smokers, more likely to complain about not having the ability to correctly recall previous events or learn new material, and also to be unable to focus attention for more then 10 - 15 minutes. Furthermore, constant inhalation of tobacco goods suppresses appetite, causes metabolism disorders and increases blood sugar. It has been determined that all forms of tobacco use are addictive and the addiction to tobacco products has been recognized by World Health Organization as a direct cause of serious health hazards.
Long-term smokers can suffer from a variety of causes from breathing difficulties (COPD), F17 (tobacco addiction disorder), lung cancer, heart attacks, strokes, impotence, to low birth weight of infants born by smoking mothers. One of main sicknesses directly connected to tobacco smoking and considered by the NHS as dramatic and life-threatening due to its impact on persons health, is lung cancer. ''Current or former cigarette smokers make up approximately 90 percent of patients with lung cancer'', declares the NHS survey (On-line, 2007).
Another sickness related to nicotine addiction and regarded as hazardous is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Main symptoms of COPD are breath shortness and strong cough usually with blood. In severe cases this disease could lead to 'cor pulmonale' (a change in structure and role of the right ventricle of the heart muscle) due to the extra work required by the heart to get blood to flow through the lungs.
R. Doll's survey in National Statistics (On-line, 2007) illustrates that people with tobacco addiction born between 1900 and 1930 who had smoked their whole mature life, died nearly ten years younger than lifelong non-smokers. In addition, individuals that have started to smoke as teenagers, 70 percent of cases, lived 20 years less then those people who never smoked. P. Puska (On-line, 2005) from World Health Organization alerts that tobacco manufactured goods are a direct reason for over 4 million deaths annually all over the world.
Puska expresses that if no changes occur, the death numbers, within the next 20 years to come, will arise up to 10 millions. The point mentioned above, generates serious health problems and therefore, forms drawbacks in the National Health Service. The overall target for Great Britain within the NHS shown in the survey by National Statistics ( summer 2007) is to reduce the number of adults who smoke and to deter young people from starting to smoking.
In order to achieve this long term goal of moderating figures, and what is more, improving the general health of the society the Government provides smoking legislations. One of founded legislations, from 1 July 2007, to discourage smoking by making it more inconvenient, states that in public places and workplaces it is illegal to smoke and if not abided heavy fines will be adjudicated. Opinion given by 'karendodd' (On-line, 2007) on smoking in public places and passive smoking 'I am enjoying going out more now that its all smoke free, before it was a waste of time putting nice clothes on and washing your hair if you were going out to a pub at least now you come home still smelling nice.
Plus its a lot more healthier for everyone who does not smoke. '' demonstrates the general attitude of a British society. Wherever people smoke, there is the risk of passive smoking for individuals who do not smoke. Passive smoking, also called secondhand smoking, is a process of a submissive inhalation of a tobacco smoke which can damage every organ in the human body.
Tobacco smoke is an irritant and all passive smokers can experience at least one of the unpleasant symptoms, for example: burning eyes, sneezing, coughing, headaches or feeling sleepy. Non-smokers also tend not to like the odour of a burned tobacco, which clings to hair, skin, teeth, fingernails, clothing, furniture, and rugs. Breathing in secondhand smoke also affects persons blood structure by making it more glutinous and causing the formation of blood clots, what as the worst result, can then lead to complete heart failure.
Another smoking legislation introduced by the British Government from 1 October 2007, alters the age from 16 to 18, of anyone wanting to purchase tobacco products. The NHS in Poland, asserted the same legislation, that individuals under 18 can not buy tobacco manufactured goods, but failed to improve the health situation in the country, accordingly to National Statistics Online (NSO). Since 1992 Poland is still one of the leading countries considering tobacco smoking.
Nevertheless, over 77 percent of Polish citizens are against smoking, what is shown in NSO, and that is why the National Health Service intends to reduce the number of people who smoke by imposing on the Government to introduce a legislation on banning smoking from public places. This paper has identified smoking as the important problem currently being experienced by the National Health Service. It also has described the reason why smoking tobacco products has extremely bad and unpleasant effects on people's health and what is more, it has exemplified the motive for the NHS to have started a boosted anti-smoking campaign.
The main goal of the NHS is to reduce smoking rates and motivate smokers in different groups to stop using tobacco products. In doing that the National Health Service in Great Britain and Poland is trying to support and encourage the nation by giving a clear information about health risks, reasons not to smoke, and also by offering 24 hour access to NHS support to quit smoking, for example 'Stop Smoking Services' and nicotine replacement Therapies.
Great Britain's and Poland's NHS reforms are setting new approach to public health through sustained investment and fresh thinking. These reforms are the start, not the end of a journey, since the ideas and actions should always be developed, and what is more, they are constantly encouraging people of Great Britain and Poland to stop smoking and focus on the health improvement and self progress.