Schemas are a set of beliefs or associations about a product or brand. These beliefs and associations effect the way consumers think of a product. Everyone had their own ideas about different brands of juice. For example, Rachel* and Lacey* thought that drinks from juice bars such as Jamba Juice and Robeks were very high in calories. As a result these people saw these brands of juice as meal supplements. One person we interviewed thought that Jamba Juice was the best juice out there and did not have a preference to juices sold in supermarkets.
One of the things this consumer liked about Jamba Juice was the atmosphere because it made him feel healthier. Other consumers found brand juices to be superior because of their taste and quality. For example, Cindy* thought Naked Juice tasted “very fresh”. Tropicana and Jamba Juice were mentioned by Cindy as brands with a good taste. For this consumer, a schema for Tropicana and Jamba Juice would be a good taste. Lacey cited Welch’s as a personal favorite because of its unique fruit blends. Rachel had a negative experience with Naked Juice after she purchased it at a local Starbucks.
She thought the taste was “disgusting” and would not purchase it again. For this consumer the brand schema for Naked Juice is poor taste. The different opinions between Cindy and Rachel demonstrate how brand schemas can vary widely from consumer to consumer. While no one else mentioned poor taste for Naked Juice, the company would not exist today if all consumers thought this poorly of the product. Product Category Schemas We asked people why they drink juice and found that one of the schemas associated with juice is health. Everyone except Lacey cited health as a reason to drink juice.
Lacey did not report health as one of the considerations when she drank juice but instead cited weight loss, which we felt was a subcategory of health, since keeping in shape is a way to stay healthy. People feel that there are many health benefits that can be reaped from juice. Jeff* thought that juice had a lot of vitamins, was good for the eyes and gave him more energy. Lacey, who started drinking juice to lose weight, thought she could already feel a difference in the way she felt. She was “starting to feel more energetic all of the time. Whether these results are real or not, consumers feel that juice has positive effects on the body and that is another schema for juice. Many of the consumers we interviewed also mentioned thirst as a reason for drinking juice. While consumers feel juice is healthy, many consumers feel it satisfies the problem of being thirsty. Jessica said she drinks it “whenever I am thirsty or feel that I need a drink. ” When asked the question, “what are the top three reasons you drink juice? ” John and Jeff both cited to satisfy thirst as their first reason.
As mentioned earlier, some consumers thought juice from Jamba Juice, Robeks and other juice bars were too high in calories. For this reason, Lacey said she would not drink this kind of juice and preferred to drink “straight juice”. Thirst and taste were tied for other reasons that people chose juice as a drink. Many of our interviewees thought juice tasted good and was a tasty way to get the fruit requirements, but do not always get around to eating. Jessica* felt that water was healthier to drink than juice, but she did not like the taste of water and therefore preferred to drink juice.
Half of the consumers we interviewed thought juice was strictly a drink, while the other half thought it could be a drink or a meal supplement. Those that consider juice was only a drink consumed juice with a meal. However, those that thought juice could be either a drink or a meal supplement thought it depended on what type of juice was being consumed. If the drink is just regular orange or apple juice and low in calories, consumers thought juice was drink. On the other hand, if juice was from a juice bar and higher in calories then the juice was a meal supplement because it would not normally accompany food.
Hierarchical Categories for Product At the broadest level or superordinate level, juice is a beverage. Anything drinkable falls into this category, but other beverages in this group may not be a substitute for juice, even though they are grouped together. At a basic level, juice is considered a healthy beverage. Other drinks that fall into this category that were brought up by our interviewees are water and tea. The basic level has smaller distinctions that are being made. At the subordinate level, the finest distinctions are being made and consumers will decide what kind of healthy beverage they want and juice would be in its own category.
Some consumers might slot juice into an even smaller category and choose only freshly squeezed orange juice or something else that is an even finer distinction. Scripts for Usage A script for usage is how a consumer uses a product. Many people feel that products can only be used in a certain way or at a certain time. There were two scripts we found consumers to have when it comes to juice. The first is how and where they purchase the product. The second is when they use the product. All of the consumers we interviewed except for Jeff said that they purchased juice at a grocery store.
Jeff said he purchases his juice at Sam’s Club and Cindy said she purchased Naked Juice at Costco in addition to purchasing juice at a grocery store. For our purposes, we see that people purchase their juice at two places: grocery stores and whole sale warehouses. While most of the people we interviewed said they also drink Jamba Juice or something equivalent, only one person acknowledged that they purchased juice at a juice bar in addition to a grocery store. Rachel mentioned that the smoothie type juices are purchased at juice bars around her town and can also be purchased at a local health club.
There was a variety of responses given by our interviewees about when they actually drink the juice that they purchase. Cindy and Rachel both said that they do not drink juice at night because they think of it as a daytime drink. Cindy also said that she never drinks juice away from home. A lot of the people we interviewed said they tended to drink juice more at home than they do when they are out and about. Lacey did mention that she liked the convenience of single serve bottles of juice because she could take them “on the go” with her. John* and Jessica said that tend to drink juice when they are thirsty.
Overall, I think people agreed that juice was more of day time drink, but how and where people consume it tends to be vary by individual. Marketing Effort As it is shown in the schemas for juice, consumers mainly see juice as a healthy beverage. We may think that the marketing efforts of all brands are similar; however, they all have different marketing efforts geared to their product. House brands are treated more like a commodity, mainly relying on price, sales and coupons to sell them. We see from our interviews that many people rely on price when buying juice.
However, many companies’ efforts to differentiate their products have been very successful, making their brands unique from their competition. As seen in the interviews, Tropicana is a brand that is a prominent component of the evoke set for juice. Their products are packaged mainly in bottles, cartons, and gallon containers. Tropicana’s most popular product is orange juice, and includes many variations of this one product alone. Examples of the variations are low acid, healthy heart, light, and healthy kids. Tropicana’s prices are significantly cheaper than their competitors, but still more expensive than bottled water, soda, and tea.
Tropicana distributes mainly to supermarkets and their promotion efforts utilize coupons in and out of the store, and Point-of Purchase advertising. They feature TV ads, and their slogan is “Start Your Day Right”. Naked Juice was also a popular response in our interviews, therefore, we can also conclude that Naked Juice is in the evoke set for juice. Naked Juice has a line of pure, all-natural juices, smoothies and fortified smoothies. Naked Food-Juice promotes itself as “simply food you drink”. Naked Juice mainly features freshly squeezed juices and yogurt blends in single serve bottles.
The brand name suggests it has the benefits of the fruit. Many of the flavor names describe the health benefits. Green Machine, Protein Zone and Power-C are examples. Even juices with only one flavor have a benefit implied on their name. “Just O-J” implies the drink is additive free. Naked Juice offers a wide variety of flavors and blends, including a line of Naked Organic Food-Juice products. Naked Juice’s packaging is simple. It does not industrialized, giving a more “natural” image to the brand. It is one of the more expensive juices on the market, implying quality in its products.
Naked Juice is carefully distributed to college campuses, gyms, health food stores, and supermarkets. Promotion efforts rely on word-of-mouth advertising, the internet, and limited publicity. Naked Juice was the winner of the 2004 Veggie Awards in the category “favorite juice”. This award is offered by Veg News Magazine, whose circulation is driected to vegetarians and people that want to live a “cruelty-free lifestyle”. They also received a very good review from Women's Health & Fitness Magazine in 2003. Odwalla products and 365 Organic also have similar marketing programs.
Because more people mentioned Naked Juice in our interviews, we focused on that brand. Jamba Juice was also a popular response on our surveys. Jamba Juice features a large variety of freshly squeezed juices, smoothies, yogurt blends, and boosts. They offer three different single serve sizes featuring flavors with very creative names. Jamba Juice is priced higher than other juice brands and they offer a very unique shopping experience which is only available at their juice bars. According to their website, Jamba Juice can be found at select Whole Foods Markets, college campuses, airport locations as well as many other locations.
Jamba Juice relies on word of the mouth advertising and their logo is “get positively charged” seems to work well for both product and consumer. Memory for the Brand The marketing efforts for Tropicana effectively influence the memory for their brand, making them part of the evoke set for the product, which is very important for low involvement purchasers. Buying juice may be high involvement for some people, but it seems that the target market for Tropicana is more low involvement subjects. The marketing efforts for many other companies, such as Minute Maid, are very similar to that of Tropicana.
Most of the interviews mentioned Tropicana, so we concluded that Tropicana has done an excellent job shaping the attitudes of consumers and helping them remember their brand. Tropicana has a clever slogan which helps the customer recall its brand. It is implied from the slogan that Tropicana juice is a healthy breakfast beverage, and that is how their product is remembered in the minds of customers. Tropicana’s ads emphasize family life with happy family members sitting at a table together drinking Tropicana. This image is portrayed in their media coverage and the website.
This image of Tropicana is processed even more easily because of the repetition of the image, constantly reinforcing the message. This image targets consumers’ own emotions, such as warmth of family life and it becomes a lot easier to recall the brand name when deciding what brand to buy. In the interviews, we often heard that Tropicana and Florida’s Natural are “family juices”. Therefore, it is seen that these brands did a good job positioning their product. Like Tropicana, Naked Juice is already part of the “top-of-mind memory” for juice, being easily recalled from memory.
The marketing effort for Naked Juice is totally different to that of Tropicana. The catchy brand name suggests the benefits of a “bare naked fruit”, enhancing the memory for their product. It is very well coordinated and congruent. Every aspect of its marketing effort reinforces one another, helping enhance the memory retrieval for the brand. Their flavors also suggest benefits for the brand and therefore the product as well. Simple inferences here shape attitude and memory toward juice. Jamba Juice also has the same strategy, using creative names for flavors, inferring the benefits of their juice and making it easily retrievable.
Jamba Juice differentiates themselves from competitors though their distribution strategy. They have their own walk-in stores where drinking juice becomes a neighborly experience, meeting energetic employees in an inviting environment. They are able to appeal the five senses to make people remember their good experience in their stores, and consequently remember their brand. Jamba Juice seems to be the most well known of the juice bar chains and have become the prototype of juice bars. Attitudes about the Brand The feeling of family life and warmth in Tropicana ads affect the attitudes toward the brand.
If people like the feeling of the ad, they will think favorably about the brand as well. The distribution of Tropicana is also geared toward families, because supermarkets are the places parents go to buy their groceries. With the addition of Point-of-Purchase advertising and coupons in supermarkets, it reinforces people’s retrieval of the brand. Brand exposure and familiarity is often acquired from one generation to the next. One generation enjoys Tropicana because their mothers did so, and exposure over time leads to good feelings and attitudes toward the brand.
Naked Juice’s marketing efforts target consumers who have a higher concern about health and environment. They are targeting a niche where one choice of juice requires an educated decision. This group then influences other consumers who may be low effort subjects to begin drinking Naked Juice. The spokespeople from the various magazines who gave award to Naked Juice have credibility because they were independent evaluations. Therefore, support arguments about Naked Juice go up, counter arguments goes down, and source derogation goes down. Normative beliefs seem to play a very important role for drinkers of Naked Juice.
Many of our interviewees had been introduced to Naked Juice by a friend and that’s why they drink it. Normative beliefs are also an important attitude shaper for Jamba Juice consumers because many of its customers were also introduced to the product or the juice by a friend. The packaging for Naked Juice also plays an important role in shaping the consumers’ attitude. The organic and “natural” looking product, implies that the juice inside is also natural. Product distribution plays a key role because Naked Juice is distributed to places where health conscious people shop.
As Lacey mentioned in her interview, she pays more attention to the juices she sees in multiple places. Therefore, because Naked Juice is distributed to places health-oriented people go, these people will be more likely to notice Naked Juice and begin drinking it. The attitudes toward Jamba Juice are also strongly shaped by the experience in their juice bars. Their juice bars can evoke SEVA emotional responses to the brand, influencing attitude. Outside stimulants such as music are able to create a positive mood and stimulate good memories.
These attitudes combined with normative influences can predict behavior, inducing consumers to act on their attitudes and buy a particular product. Pricing is an external influence that can affect a person’s attitude about a brand. Naked Juice has a price skimming strategy which suggests that it is of good quality. Decision Making Decision making here is very complex because it depends on what type of customer they are and what the individual’s objectives are. If you are buying juice for your family, you might first think of Tropicana or Minute Maid or Florida’s Natural because these brands are positioned as family juices.
Although, consumers may choose another type of juice when out with friends. In the interviews many people mentioned they were not influenced by ads. However, they acknowledged to not buying brands they are not aware of. Obtaining the Product Problem Recognition In order to obtain a product, the consumer should first recognize there is a problem, and that they need something to solve that problem. The need for a drink can be recognized simply by being thirsty. However, this does not necessarily equate to needing juice. The recognition that people need to drink a juice may be much more complex than the realization of that they are thirsty.
There is a difference between the ideal self and the actual self. The ideal self is an expectation of how one should be. There may be simple expectations, such as a person’s desire to be as energetic as they once were and progressing to the need to be healthier and therefore drink juice. It helps that people compare themselves to others, possibly realizing that they are not as healthy as their neighbors. They may even want to have the “perfect body” that is so often portrayed in the mainstream society; as a result, people begin drinking juice or having “juice diets” as we saw in one of our interviews.
There is a growing trend, particularly in American culture, to improve fitness and health. According to IHRSA, more and more people are joining gym and adopting some type of fitness program. We can see in Graph 1 (note that y-axis does not begin with zero), there is a large growth in health club memberships in the U. S. each year. The year between 2002 and 2003 had the most significant increase, where approximately 3. 1 million people joined health clubs. These numbers increase consistently each year and illustrate the growing awareness and swing to a healthy living.
Along with physical fitness, people are realizing they need to include health drinks in their diets to compliment their health regimen. There are plenty of external stimuli showing consumers what the picture of health is, not all of which are realistic. Marketers of health related products remind the consumer of what they should be, and other credible sources such as doctors and the media are adding their voices in support of health awareness. For most people, drinking juice is mainly a low involvement product. They internally search for the evoke set for juice.
They look for familiar products or brands and elements they want in their drinks. Recall of details may be limited so they will look for details that are salient and diagnostic. Also, if the consumer relates drinking a juice to a vivid experience, the brand will be more easily retrieved. For example, one of our respondents said she prefers the environment of Jamba Juice because it makes her feel healthy. Consumers more easily recall products they tried before. If a marketer is able to get people to try their juice, they will be apt to recall it later and buy it.
In our interviews, some people claimed that they mainly buy juices that are well known in the market. Many affirmed they are willing to try an unfamiliar brand if they did not suffer any economic risk. Therefore, a not well known brand of juice could offer free samples making customers apt to recall it later and eventually buy it if the taste test was positive. Judgment and Decision-Making As mentioned before, the judgment for juice can be both high effort and low effort. For high effort subjects, the judgment process begins with anchoring and adjustments.
People first anchor on some value, such as well-being or health. They adjust the information they have about a brand as information arrives, such as newspaper articles, health reports by governmental organizations, articles from related magazines, or advertising. Then they construct an image of themselves using the product. For marketers of juice, this is important because they can focus on a certain feature that is important for consumers and prime consumers with positive feelings about their brand. For high effort decision making, mainly two types of decision processes may be used.
There are about forty six types of juice brands available on the market, ranging from frozen concentrate juice to powder juice to fresh juice to yogurt blends, therefore the noncompensatory brand processing models will most likely be used. This may include a process of elimination, where brands that do not satisfy the cutoff level will be sent to the inept set. For high effort juice drinkers, this cutoff level will most likely require the juice to be 100% natural. We asked our respondents what juice means to them and most responded that juice could be anything with a label that says juice on it.
They all agreed however, that they prefer 100% natural juice. Therefore, brands of juice that do not have 100% natural juice would be cut at this point. Then, the decision maker may use the compensatory processing model, where all the attributes for the brand(s) are evaluated and compared to make the decision most fit for the person. For low effort subjects, which are the majorities of juice drinkers, drinking juice may be a matter of heuristics, mainly rules of thumb, familiarity, brand loyalty, habits, and feelings.
To implify decision making, people go through choice tactics, which include price tactics, affect tactics, normative tactics, and variety seeking tactics. From our interviews, we noticed that many people used the price tactics in order to simplify their buying process. From our interviews, we saw that some people knew exactly how much a juice cost. However, some people just gave a price range because they did not remember the exact amount. That range is important because that is the zone of acceptance and people will buy it as long as it’s cheaper than a certain price, which in our case is $6. 00.
Many people also mentioned they buy whatever is on sale. Some people may also use a simplifying strategy of buying a brand of juice, such as Naked Juice, because it has the highest price. That may happen because people assume the higher price implies higher quality. Every time people buy juice, learning occurs, and the next behavior results from previous actions. If the juice people previously bought gave them feelings of satisfaction or at least not dissatisfaction, these people will likely repeat the purchase. We saw from the interviews, that most people believe juice satisfies their thirst and they can feel the signs of health.
However, if the needs are not met, it can lead customers to purchase a competitor’s brand. For that reason, the first time a customer samples the product is very important. If they had a good first experience, juice drinkers may develop the habit of buying a specific brand, not searching for other brands and not evaluating other alternatives. Marketers help consumers develop repeat- purchase behavior by having sales promotions, sales, and coupons. From our interviews, we noticed that a consumer had a negative first experience with Naked Juice after they purchased it at a local Starbucks.
As a result that individual never bought the product again. Normative influences can be very useful simplifying strategies. Sometimes people just see what their friends are drinking or what juices their mother bought. Most of the leading juice brands on the market are influenced by friends or family. In the case of Tropicana, many people began buying it because their moms bought it. For Naked Juice and Odwalla a lot of people began buying it after their friends recommended the drink. Another way that people try to simplify their decision-making is feeling-based. They may just like it or be very familiar with the brand.
Again, some people grew up drinking Tropicana in their homes and that’s why they drink it now. Some people may also be looking for variety and wanting to try something different because they are satiated or bored. They may either begin or discontinue drinking juice. It is important for juice makers to continue developing new and keep their customer’s interest and loyalty. In the interviews, many people mentioned that they wish there was a greater variety of flavors for juice, including more exotic flavors. From our interviews, we saw that most of those tactics were used when deciding what juice to buy.
What Happens After Usage/Consumption In the interviews, we found out that most of the people thought juice was a health beverage and also a breakfast drink. Some of the respondents also saw juice as a meal supplement, especially the higher calorie ones. As said before under judgment, every time people buy juice learning occurs, and the next behavior results from previous actions. Consumption is a very important part of the buying process because it will shape the next purchase. From the interviews, we saw that many people bought three to five different brands.
Most of our respondents were habitual purchasers and these people were satisfied with the choices they made. People have different expectations and satisfaction levels. It goes back to when the consumer recognizes a problem. While, consuming the juice, people will evaluate if their problem was solved or if they are closer to their ideal self, which in the case of juice is mainly if they felt the health benefits of juice or if their thirst was quenched. Disposal Disposal of juice happens mainly after the juice has fulfilled its designed function, which may be to satisfy thirst or give a boost of nutrients to the drinker.
The product life of juices is very short, either the people drink it, or it will expire. Disposal could also happen if juice no longer fits with the consumer’s view of himself. Their ideal self may have changed, and instead of juice drinker, there could be a new trend to consumer water only. People may also resist the problems related to drinking juice, such as the high amount of calories and carbohydrates. Potentially if this is a low effort decision, people may become tired of the same flavors and explore for new types of drinks.