1.1The importance of the human body with correct moving and positioning in relation to anatomy and physiology includes making sure you understand the different kinds of joints (hinge/ball and socket for example) are held together by ligaments and tendons and how easy it is to damage these joints by pulling on them or for example heaving people around a bed or not using a hoist but instead by dragging people up under their armpits. This could cause a shoulder to be dislocated etc by incorrect handling.

There are pressure areas on the human body (shoulders, ankles, bottom etc) which are prone to pressure sores which can progress on to full thickness of skin loss. This can continue onto damage of the nerves and how they can be permanently damaged by leaving a person laying too long in the same position. It important to have this knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the human body when moving or positioning to prevent injuries.

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1.2There will be an impact on specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual, for example if the individual has a condition such as arthritis which affects the joints they are more prone to damage if not handled in the correct way as opposed to somebody who doesn’t have arthritis. Somebody who also has Osteoporosis is more likely to fracture bones as they are less dense than somebody who hasn’t got the condition so therefore it is vital they are moved and positioned correctly in a way that won’t cause harm.

2.1Under legislation you have many duties not only in what you do for example health and safety but also in how you respect the individual and include them in their own care. You must follow your settings policies and procedures and each individual will have their own care plan which will include the agreed ways of working which must be adhered to. The current legislation for moving and handling include Health and Safety At Work Act 1974, Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992, Provision of Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1999, The Importance of Reporting Injuries and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995.

2.2Factors that need to be taken into account when moving and positioning individuals include ensuring the area you are using is hazard free, for example making sure there is nothing in your way that will affect you moving safely eg rugs to trip over, wet floors, other individuals moving around. You must make sure the equipment is fully working and safe to use, for example if using a hoist ensuring the sling is in date, making sure there are no pulls on the sling and loops, ensuring the battery is charged and the hoist is clean and fully working. Making sure the individual is correctly positioned and safely positioned in vital and if they aren’t 100% correct then you must start again to ensure this.

3.3 It is vital you identify any immediate risks to the individual to ensure they are 100% safe and can be moved completely safely. For example if the sling for the hoist has a loop that is used to keep them positioned correctly and safely and the loop has ripped then that sling must not be used. You would identify this risk immediately when ensuring everything is hazard free before starting the moving, handling and positioning.

3.4 If you identify a risk you must deal with it accordingly. Depending on the risk will depend on how you would deal with it. For example if you identified the rug would cause an obstruction you would move the rug, if you saw a floor was wet because it had just been mopped you wouldn’t carry out the task there. If the hoist was broken then it is essential that you call the maintenance company and do not use the hoist until it is back working again.

3.5 Action to be taken if an individual’s wishes conflict with their plan of care in relation to health and safety and their risk assessment is remind the individual that you must follow their care plan and explain calmly the risk of injury if they were to carry out their wish, maybe using a distraction technique to de-stress the individual. For example Mr S wants to go up and down the stairs without staff support but he is very unsteady on his feet and has extremely brittle bones and is at a high risk of causing himself harm and injury. We mustn’t take Mr S’s independence away but we need to keep his safety at all times. Ensuring staff support Mr S but also let him know he is doing very well by the part he is playing himself so then lots of praise will make Mr S realise having support is in his best interest.

5.3 Aids and equipment that may be used for moving and handling and positioning vary for all different kinds of needs, there are ‘banana boards’ which are used for people who have limited or no mobility in their lower half and are used to transfer from a bed to a chair. There is also the hoist which is used for people who have very low or no mobility at all, used a lot on elderly people and these are used to move an individual from place to place safely whilst keeping their dignity. Another aid could be slip sheets which are used to slide under an individual and is used to move them up and down the bed.

6.1 Advise or assistance should be sought when the required equipment is not available, when the individual’s condition/ability has changed or deteriorated, when you have not been trained to deal with a specific situation for example new equipment etc.

6.2 Sources of information that are available about moving and handling include all different types of training courses available, policies and procedures to be followed, legislation, care plans, and seeking advice and information from the manager.