Fitts and Posner
1. Cognitive
2. Associative
3. Autonomous
Cognitive Stage:
-first stage of learning
-focuses on cognitively oriented problems
-many mistakes and errors
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Associative Stage
-Intermediate
- person has learned to associate cues from the env with required movements
-works to refine performance to be more consistent
-Important to stress correct fundamentals
Autonomous stage
-Expert
-Do not consciously think about performing the skill
Gentiles 2 stage model: Initial stage
-Develop a movement coordination pattern for successful performance
-Learn to discriminate regulatory & non regulatory conditions
Gentiles 2 stage model: Later stage
-Increased consistency
-Adapt movement patterns to specific demands of any performance situation
Fixation
-The Goal of Gentiles 2nd stage in CLOSED SKILLS
-refine movement patterns so they are produced correctly and consistently from trial to trial
Diversification
-OPEN SKILLS
-modify movement pattern according to environmental context characteristics.
Most common pattern of MOTOR SKILL learning
-Negative accelerated curve
Power law of practice
Large amount of improvement during early practice, and smaller improvement rates characterized further practice.
-Performance is determined by experience
-applies only to motor skills
Freezing the degrees of freedom
common initial strategy of beginning learners to control the many degrees of freedom associated with the coordination demands of a motor skill in order to achieve the action goal; the person holds some joints rigid while performing the skill
Performer characteristc that does not change amoung stages of learning
Relaience on sensory info
Expertise
high level of skill performance that characterized a person at the extremem opposite end of a beginner
-deliberate practice for a minimum of ten years
-select meaningful information in a short amount of time.
Brain plasticity
shifts in brain region activation