motor control definition
ability to regulate the mechanisms required to generate movement to meet the demands of a given task in a specific movement
3 factors effecting movement
individual
task
environment
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individual constraints
perception
cognition
action (motor output from CNS)
task constraints
discrete or continuous
stability or mobility or manipulation
open movement or closed movement
environmental constraints
regulatory
nonregulatory
regulatory environmental constraints
shape the movement itself
size, shape, weight of object to pick up
nonregulatory environmental constraints
may affect the performance but movement does not have to conform
quasimobile
between stable and mobile
reflex theory of motor control
stimulus->response
does not explain movement that occurs without SENSORY STIMULUS, FAST movements, ability to produce NOVEL movements
Hierarchical Theory
brain has a higher, middle, and lower level of motor function
organization is top down (or on both surrounding levels)
does not explain dominance of reflex in certain situations (stepping on a tack)
Motor Program Theory
identify central pattern generator (CPG)
hierarchically organized
CPG cannot replace sensory input or solely determine action
Systems Theory of Motor Control
body is subject to outside and inside forces
body is mechanical system with many degrees of freedom
Dynamic Action Theory
seeks physical explanation for movement as opposed to CNS
self organizing system
Dynamic Systems Model
takes into account CNS, mechanical aspects of body, and environment
Ecological Theory of Motor Control
motor control evolved so animals could cope with environment
perception is important component
Motor learning definition
a set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for producing skilled action
learning definition
process of acquiring knowledge about the world
relatively permanent change
performance
temporary change seen during practice
nondeclarative forms of long term memory
nonassociative learning
associative learning
procedural learning
declarative/explicit form of long term memory
knowledge that can be consciously recalled and requires awareness, attention, and reflection
nonassociative form of learning
occurs when given a single stimulus repeatedly
-habituation: decreased responseiveness from non paindul stimulus
-sensitization: increased responsiveness from painful stimulus
associative form of learning
person learns to predict relationships
-classical conditioning: weak stimuli paired with strong stimuli
-operant conditioning: response paired with consequence
procedural learning
learning tasks that can be performed automatically
-develops through repetition
- no attention necessary
Adam's Closed Loop Theory
sensory feedback used for ongoing production of skilled movement
-memory trace: selection and initiation of movement
-perceptual trace: built over time with practice, internal reference for correctness
Schmidt's Schema Theory
abstract representation stored in memory
-recall schema: used to select specific response
-recognition schema: used to evaluate response
predictions:
1) variability of practice should improve
2) movement can be made correctly even if never performed before
Ecological Theory
increases the coordination between perception and action in a way that is consistent with the task and environment
Fits and Posner Three Stage of Learning Model
1. Cognitive: understand task
2. Associative: refine skill
3. Autonomous: low attention needed to perform
Systems Three Stage Model
controlling degrees of freedom
1. novice stage: simple movement, low DOF
2. advanced stage: add movement at more joints
3. expert stage: released all DOF to perform task efficiently
closed skill vs open skill
closed: late practice, there is only one option
open: late practice, there are several ways to perform task
practice levels
initially performance improves rapidly, adding practice improves slower
types of feedback
intrinsic: inherent
extrinsic: augmented
knowledge of results: provide in summary for better learning
knowledge of performance:
massed practice
amount of practice time in a trial is greater than the amount of rest between trials
distributed practice
the amount of rest between trials is equal to or greater than the amount of time for a trial
constant practice
no change in order or speed of task
-use when no variability
variable practice
change in a variable of practice
-transfers learning to novel task
random practice
tasks are practice in no order
- for higher level
blocked practice
practice a specific task in block then move on to another task in a block
-for lower level
task analysis
process of identifying the components of a skill or movement and then ordering them into a sequence
whole vs part training
whole is better for learning
transfer practice
amount of transfer depends on similarity of the two tasks/environments
mental practice
mentally practicing a skill to produce large positive effect on performance of task