motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
instinct theory
theory whose underlying assumption is that genes predispose species-typical behavior; names instead of explains behavior and fails to explain most human motives.
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evolutionary perspective
perspective that serves as the modern day form of instinct theory.
drive-reduction theory
theory that physiological need creates an aroused tension state (aka "drive") that motivates an organism to satisfy said need.
drive
an aroused tension state.
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level; what motivates drive-reduction theory.
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
human motivation
aims not to eliminate arousal but seeks optimum levels of arousal.
stress
too much stimulation, want to decrease arousal.
boredom
too little stimulation, want to increase arousal.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid; physiological needs must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
self-transcendence level
people strive for meaning, purpose, and communion that is beyond the self, that is transpersonal.
modern pyramid add-ons
gaining and retaining mates, and parenting offspring.
Keys' experiment
the semi-starved men's preoccupations w/food and hunger illustrated how activated motives can hijack our consciousness: when you are hungry, food matters; subjects lowered BMR to adjust to lowered ability to consume food.
Washburn experiment
showed that stomach contractions (transmitted by the stomach balloon) accompany our feelings of hunger (indicated by a key press).
hunger
can persist w/o stomach pangs or even stomach!
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue; when its level is low, we feel hunger.
insulin
appetite hormone secreted by the pancreas that controls blood glucose; actually diminishes blood glucose, partly by converting it to stored fat.
arcuate nucleus
neural arc of hypothalamus that has two centers, one that secretes appetite-stimulating hormones and another that secretes appetite-suppressing hormones.
ghrelin
a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach and sends "I'm hungry" signals to the brain.
leptin
appetite hormone secreted by fat cells that decreases hunger.
orexin
appetite hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that increases hunger.
PYY
appetite hormone secreted by the digestive tract that decreases hunger.
set point
point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set; when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight; heredity influences.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
settling point
indicates the level at which a person's weight settles in response to caloric intake and expenditure (which are influenced by environment as well as biology) - alternative to biologically fixed "set point".
Rozin experiment
tested two patients with anterograde amnesia who had no memory for events occurring more than a minute ago; would repeatedly eat meals when offered suggesting that part of knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal.
carbohydrates
help boost levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has calming effects.
sweet and salty
preferences for these tastes are genetic and universal.
neophobia
dislike of things unfamiliar; an adaptive trait.
repeated sampling
doing this will repeatedly typically increase appreciation for a new taste.
social facilitation
theory that presence of others tends to amplify our natural behavior tendencies; explains why we over eat at celebrations.
unit bias
calories increase with portion size and we we tend to eat whole portions; smaller portion sizes explain why French weight less than us.
food variety
having access to a bunch of different or many foods stimulates eating; adaptive trait.
way to reduce consumption
1. Before eating with others, decide how much you wish to eat. 2. Reduce standard portion sizes. 3. Serve food with smaller bowls, plates, and utensils. 4. Limit variety. 5. Store appealing foods out of sight.
biological influences (eating behavior)
hypothalamic centers in the brain monitoring appetite; appetite hormones; stomach pangs; weight set/settling point; attraction to sweet and salty tastes; adaptive wariness towards novel foods.
social-cultural influences (eating behavior)
culturally learned taste preferences; responses to cultural preferences for appearance.
psychological influences (eating behavior)
sight and smell of food; variety of foods available; memory of time elapsed since last meal; stress and mood; food unit size.
fat
an ideal form of stored energy; a high-calorie fuel reserve to carry the body through periods when food is scarce.
>=30
an obese BMI.
BMI formula
weight in kilograms/squared height in meters
body mass index (BMI)
measure of obesity; criticized for not distinguishing between muscle and fat.
obesity risks
diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, gallstones, arthritis, certain types of cancer, and late-life cognitive decline (women only).
2-4
# of years of life lost on average to moderate obesity (BMI 30-35).
obesity stereotype
obese people are slow, lazy, and undisciplined.
Gortmaker study
study that followed 370 obese 16-to 24-year-old women over 7 year period, @ end: 2/3 of whom were still obese 7 years later, they made on average $7000 a year less that non-obese women, and they were less likely to be married.
Pingitore experiment
filmed mock job interviews in which professional actors appeared either as normal-weight or overweight applicants; when appearing overweight, the same person was rated less worthy of hiring weight, esp. if they were female.
obesity-depression correlation
obesity contributes to depression and depression fosters obesity.
3500 calories
the energy equivalent of a pound of fat (# of calories in a pound of fat).
metabolic rate
fat has a lower rate of this b/c it takes less food energy to maintain; why require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it!
decreases metabolic rate
what the body does to adapt to starvation; explains why why reducing your food intake by 3500 calories may not reduce your weight by 1 pound and diet plateaus.
Bray experiment
daily food intake of obese subjects was reduced from 3500 to 450 calories but they only lost only 6 percent of their weight b/c their metabolic rates dropped about 15%.
reverse Bray experiment
volunteers were overfed an extra 1000 calories a day for eight weeks; those who gained the least weight tended to spend the extra caloric energy by fidgeting more; results suggest that lean people are naturally disposed to move about.
genes
predispose the size of our jeans; explains why the weights of identical twins, even when reared apart, have a +.74 correlation.
biological parents
a person's weight most closely resemble their...
FTO
gene that nearly doubles the risk of becoming obese.
sluggish
people who are genetically disposed to have a ______ brain reward may eat more to boost its activity.
sleep loss
the lack of this makes you vulnerable to obesity b/c it lowers leptin and increases ghrelin.
social influence
another factor that increases obesity risk; explain why obesity has a high correlation with in a group of friends.
increased/decreased
primary environmental factors on global obesity epidemic are ________ food consumption and ____________ activity levels
genetic factors
these factors mostly determine why one person today is heavier than another.
environmental factors
the factors mostly determine why people today are heavier than their counterparts 50 years ago.
ways to lose weight
1. Begin only if you feel motivated and self-disciplined. 2. Minimize exposure to tempting food cues. 3. Exercise. 4. Eat healthy foods. 5. Don't starve all day and eat one big meal at night. 5. Beware of the binge. 6. Connect to a support group.
sexual response cycle
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution (Masters and Johnson).
excitement phase
men's and women's genital areas become engorged with blood, a woman's vagina expands and secretes lubricant, and her breasts and nipples may enlarge.
plateau phase
excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase; penis becomes fully engorged and some fluid may appear at its tip; vaginal secretion continues to increase, the clitoris retracts, and orgasm feels imminent.
orgasm phase
muscle contractions take place all over the body during, accompanied by further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates; pulse rate surges from about 70 to 115 beats per minute.
resolution phase
when the body gradually returns to its unaroused state as the engorged genital blood vessels release their accumulated blood; happens fast if orgasm has occurred, relatively slowly otherwise.
refractory phase
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm but women can; lasts anywhere from a few minutes to a day or more for men!
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
erectile dysfunction
inability to have or maintain an erection.
orgasmic dysfunction
distress over infrequently or never experiencing orgasm; women's form of ED.
34%
rate of obesity in the US.
8-10
# of years of life lost on average to severe obesity.
Christakis & Fowler experiment
experiment wherein subjects were most likely to become obese when a friend became obese; the closer the friend, the more likely the subject was to become obese.
female orgasm
reinforces and facilitates conception by helping propel semen from the penis, positioning the uterus to receive sperm, and drawing the sperm further inward.
sex hormones
direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics, and (especially in nonhuman animals) they activate sexual behavior.
estrogens
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics.
ovulation
when strogen levels peak in nonhuman female mammals, promoting sexual receptivity aka state of being "in heat"; sexual desire rises slightly in women as well but they do not experience "heat".
testosterone
sex hormone that both males and females have it, but males have more of; additional amount in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
testes
manufactures testosterone.
testosterone-replacement therapy
can increase sex drive in both women and men.
biological influences (sexual motivation)
sexual maturity; sex hormones, esp. testosterone; sexual orientation.
social cultural influence (sexual motivation)
family and society values; religious and personal values; cultural expectation; media.
psychological influences (sexual motivation)
exposure to stimulating conditions; sexual fantasies.
habituates
how a response to a stimulus lessens after repeated exposure.
erotic materials
mean and women report or exhibit nearly as much arousal when viewing; men's amygdala lights up more on fMRI; can lead to devalue of women and partner; promotes false belief in "rape fantasy".
imagination
can influence arousal; explains wet dreams, orgasmic fantasies, and why people who have no genital sensation can still feel sexual desire.
teen pregnancy (contributing factors)
1. Minimal communication about birth control. 2. Guilt related to sexual activity. 3. Alcohol use. 4. Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity.
50%
% U.S. ninth-to twelfth-graders who report having had sexual intercourse.
sexualization of girls
this occurs when girls are led to value themselves in terms of their sexual appeal, compare themselves to narrowly defined beauty standards, and/or see themselves as sexual beings for others' use.
39.5%
% of sexually experienced 14-to 19-year-old U.S. females who report having had STI
"phantom" sex partners
past partners of partners
condoms
offer limited protection against certain skin-to-skin STIs, such as herpes BUT very effective at preventing AIDs and bacterial STIs.
predictors of sexual restraint
high intelligence, religious engagement, father presence, participation in service learning programs.
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
heterosexuality/homosexuality
____________ prevails and ____________ survives.
2.5%
percent of the population is gay or lesbian.
erotic plasticity
explains why women's sexual orientation tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more fluid and changing (aka more likely to be bi).
fraternal birth order effect
men who have older brothers are also somewhat more likely to be gay, about 1/3 more likely for each additional brother; may be caused by maternal antibodies becoming stronger w/each birth and consequently preventing the fetus' brain from developing in a male-typical pattern.
hypothalamus
not a sexual orientation center, but an important part of the neural pathway engaged in sexual behavior.
Levay
studied sections of the hypothalamus taken from deceased heterosexual and homosexual people and identified one cell cluster that was reliably larger in heterosexual men.
kin selection
explains how gay people's genes live on through their supporting the survival and reproductive success of their nieces, nephews, and other relatives (who also carry many of the same genes); based in assumption that gay men make generous uncles.
"fertile females" theory
based in research that homosexual men have more homosexual relatives on their mother's side than on their father's; suggests that the genes that dispose women to be strongly attracted to men, and therefore to have more children, also dispose men (including some of their male relatives) to be attracted to men.
prenatal hormones
control the sexual differentiation of brain centers involved in sexual behaviors; explains why female fetuses most exposed to testosterone, and male fetuses least exposed to testosterone, appear most likely later to exhibit gender-atypical traits and to experience same-sex desires.
trait differences (gay-straight)
spatial abilities, fingerprint ridge count, auditory system development, handedness, occupational preferences, relative finger lengths, gender nonconformity, puberty age of onset (males only), sleep length, physical agression, and walking style.
brain differences (gay-straight)
one hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in women and homosexual men, anterior commissure is larger in gay men than straight men, gay men's hypothalamus react as straight women's do to the smell of sex-related hormones.
genetic influences (gay-straight)
shared sexual orientation is more common among identical than fraternal twins, sexually attraction in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated; male homosexuality appears to be transmitted from the mother's side of the family.
prenatal influences (gay-straight)
altered prenatal hormone exposure may lead to homosexuality in humans and other animals; right-handed men w/several older brother are more likely to be gay, possibly due to a maternal immune-system reaction.
straight women and gays
most adept at remembering an object's spatial location.
autonomy
a sense of personal control; a basic psychological need.
competence
the result is a deep sense of well-being; a basic psychological need.
ubuntu
S.A. word for the human bonds that define us all; "my humanity is caught up, is inextricably bound up, in yours".
self-esteem
a gauge of how valued and accepted we feel.
ostracism
social exclusion; elicits increased activity in brain areas, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, that also activate in response to physical pain.
acetaminophen
lessens social as well as physical pain.
love
natural painkiller.
internet
is diversifying our social networks.
social networking
strengthening our connections with people we already know.
electronic communication
stimulates healthy self-disclosure.
FaceBook profile
reflects actual personality.
narcissists
especially active on social networking sites.
job
an unfulfilling but necessary way to make money.
career
an opportunity to advance from one position to a better position.
calling
a fulfilling and socially useful activity; this group report the highest satisfaction with their work and with their lives.
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills; a "zone".
purposeful engagement
quality of life positively correlates to _______; idea behind flow concept.
psychological contract
the sense of mutual obligations between workers and employers.
industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
human factors psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
talents
given the persistence of our traits and temperaments, we should focus not on our deficiencies, but rather on our...
interviewer illusion
overconfidence of interviewers, contributing factors: good intentions are less revealing than habitual behaviors; you don't follow those you passed up; presumption that people are who they seem to be; preconceptions and moods lead to bias.
unstructured interviews
do provide a sense of someone's personality (their expressiveness, warmth, and verbal ability) but they are not good predictors of future success!
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales; 50% more productive than unstructured interviews and less likely prone to bias.
checklists
supervisors simply check specific behaviors that describe the worker ("always attends to customers' needs," "takes long breaks").
graphic rating scales
supervisor checks, perhaps on a five-point scale, how often a worker is dependable, productive, and so forth.
behavior rating scales
supervisor checks scaled behaviors that describe a worker's performance.
360-degree feedback
our knowledge, skills, and behaviors are rated by ourselves and surrounding others.
performance evaluation errors
severity, leniency, and recency.
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.
discipline
outdoes talent and refines talent.
10-year rule
theory that is takes ten years of hard work to become an expert in anything.
grit
passionate dedication to an ambitious, long-term goal.
hardiness
resilience under stress.
New Lanark Mills
provided an influential demonstration of how industries could do well while doing good; based on utopian vision of Robert Owen.
employee engagement
the extent of workers' involvement, enthusiasm, and identification with their organizations.
engaged
working with passion and feeling a profound connection to their company or organization.
not engaged
putting in time but investing little passion or energy into their work.
actively disengaged
unhappy workers undermining what their colleagues accomplish.
effective managers
start by helping people identify and measure their talents; match tasks to talents and then give people freedom to do what they do best; care how their people feel about their work; reinforce positive behaviors through recognition and reward.
implementation intentions
action plans that specify when, where, and how they will march toward achieving stated goals.
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals; more autocratic.
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support; more democratic.
great person theory of leadership
that all great leaders share certain traits; outdated and overrated.
effective leadership personality
tend to be neither extremely assertive (impairing social relationships) or unassertive (limiting task leadership).
transformational leadership
motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the group's mission.
voice effect
if given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision.
human abilities and behavior
designers and engineers should consider ______________ by designing things to fit people, user-testing their inventions before production and distribution, and being mindful of the curse of knowledge.