Models in the public Administration were first introduced by Herbert Simmons. His work like; are important contributions to the Public Administrations. He bounded Rational Model, explained a rational way for arriving at a decision. Decision makers are more contended with satisfying rather than optimizing model in decision making which is a major contribution to model building in Public Administration. There are seven models frequently used in studying comparative and development Administration.
Out of these, Max Weber’s Bureaucratic model has the most popular use in comparative study of Bureaucracy. The other models by Dawn emphasis the importance of career interest. Riggs Charismatic Sala model is an intellectual creativity of model building. This is particularly with reference to the third world model. Similarly Dorsey’s Information Anarchy model, The development model and Mathur‘s Model do represent distinctly different but in the broad sense are intellectually compatible models which have proved to be useful in studying comparative public administration.
Besides the above mentioned models, there are number of models in practice. There is a substantial degree of basic similarity and general approach of these numerous models. Models are used in studying public administration due to the following reasons:
1. To study the social cultural political and economic factors that influence comparative studies.
2. By using the concepts of models we characterized public administration as a series of actions or behaviors that involved in meeting the changing environmental demands.
3. To conceptualize administrative activity in a systematic way with particular attention to the goal of political system. 4. To deal implicitly or explicitly for effective operation of administrative system.
5. These are presented in such a way as to employ their general relevance for the study of public administration. From the above characteristics, it is clear the use of models is to organize information and facts that constitute the entire study. Models are replacing our frame word of the study up to some extents models are universal framework of analysis of similar problems under study.
Now let’s study, the different models: 1. Weber’s Bureaucratic model: Max Weber’s model is the most popular model which suites for the ideal type of bureaucracy, capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency and most rational form of administration his ideas are based on legal rational authorities because of its technical superiority over others. He had integrated bureaucracy into a larger scheme of the three ideal types of authority. It is legal in sense i. e. it is based on style of authority, which is legitimated through legal processes. It is rational in sense because it is controlled on the basis of knowledge.
He was firmly committed to the parliamentary democracy and was a supporter of strong leadership. He expected the leaders to protect the mass against its own irrationality and the individual against mob psychology. Some characteristics of his model.
1. Written rules and regulations should be there to control and fixed the official jurisdictions.
2. There should be a clear division of labor with authority and responsibility, clearly designated, maximizing specializing and expertise.
3. The arrangement of positions in hierarchy of authority.
4. Officials should be appointed on the basis of qualification.
5. Work should be viewed as a vocation and full time occupation.
6. There should be uniformity and impersonality regardless of persons. Criticism: There is a lot of criticism against Weber’s ideal model as a general, identifying criteria for comparative purpose. Ideal type can never exist at all. And even if it exists the model by definition does not lend itself to explain dynamic imperial situations. Schmitt was against the concept of legal, rational authority. According to him legitimacy is based entirely on accepted legal procedures which abandon all moral arguments of legitimacy.
Another scientist, Eric Strauss criticizes Weber in these words “It’s unfortunate that Weber used the term bureaucracy to define his rational form of administration. ” Talcott Parson concluded by saying that “Weber’s model is highly developed and is broadly applicable conceptual scheme in any comparative field. ”By studying different models presented by different scientists and regardless of different criticism on Weber’s bureaucratic model it is obvious that The Weber model is the only model which provides clearer and more precise guidelines for the study of comparative public administration.
But effectiveness of above model is only possible in the industrial world, and this became the dominant form of civil service subsystem. Weber’s was the first to use comparative analysis with rich insight from historical cases; His concept of bureaucracy was mainly constructed as a tool for cross cultural and historical approach. 2. Down’s Model: Anthony Downs explained the life cycle of bureaus by specifying the four ways in which bureaus are created. He refers to the routinisation of charisma as one of the type of bureau_ genesis. According to him 1. Bureaucracy is the result of common consequences if routinisation of charisma. Creation of bureaucracy is by social groups for the performance of specific functions.
Bureaus is due to the splitting of the existing ones Bureaus are a result of entrepreneurship of few zealots. Dawn’s model’s central hypothesis is that bureaucrats are motivated by self interest. He emphasized on the importance of career interests as determinants of administrative process. He states in his theory of law of counter control, ”The greater the effort made by top level official top control the behavior of subordinate officials, the greater the efforts made by those subordinates to evade or counter act such control