Physical Development
body size, body systems, motor capacities, nervous systems
Cognition Development
intellectual abilities
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Emotional and Social Development
emotional communication, self-understanding, interpersonal skills, moral reasoning
Early Childhood
2-6 years
Middle Childhood
6-11
Adolescence
11-18
Continuous
you are the same person just growing up, gradual
Discontinuous
you grow up in stages, like a caterpillar ->cocoon -> butterfly
Nature
inborn, biological, based on genetic inheritance
Nurture
physical and social world, influences biological and psychological development
Stability
individual characteristic will remain in your later life
Plasticity
change is possible, based on experience
Medieval Era
children under age 8 need to be treated different than adults
Reformation
16th century, Puritan "child depravity" views
Enlightenment
John Locke, children are born with a blank slate, continuous development/nurture
18th Century
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, "noble savages" naturally good, nature, discontinuous, society ruins them
Evolutionary Theory
natural selection and survival of the fittest
Normative Approach
Hall and Gesell: age related averages based on measurements of large numbers of children
Mental Testing Movement
Binet and Simon: early developers of intelligence tests
theory
describes, explains, and predicts behaviors
Id
largest portion of the mind, unconscious, present at birth, source of biological needs and desires
Ego
conscious, rational, emerges in infancy, redirects impulses acceptably
Superego
conscience, ages 3-6, interactions with caretakers
Conscious
thoughts and perceptions
Preconscious
memories and knowledge
Unconscious
fears, violent feelings
Classical Conditioning
stimulus -> response
Operant Conditioning
reinforcers and punishments
Social-Cognitive Approach
learn from watching others
Modeling or Observational Learning
watching others
Cognition
stressed today; social cognitive approach
Limitations of Behaviorism and Social Learning Theory
-too narrow a view of important environmental influences
-underestimates children's contributions
-children are an active role in their own learning
-applied behavior analysis
Sensorimotor
birth-2 years, infants "think" by acting on the word, invent ways of solving sensorimotor problems
Preoperational
2-7, uses symbols and language
Concrete Operational
7-11, logical reasoning, thinking is not abstract
Formal Operational
11 years -> on, abstract thinking, hypothesis, inferences
Information Processing
-human mind as a symbol manipulating system
-flowcharts to map problem-solving steps
-information=input that is actively coded, output= behavior
Ethology
concerned with adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history , roots traced to Darwin (imprinting, critical period, sensitive period)
Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
-seeks to understand adaptive value of human competencies
-studies cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as they change with age
-expanded upon Ethology
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
-transmission of culture to a new generation (beliefs, customs, skills)
-social interaction is vital for cognitive development (cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society)
Microsystem
immediate environment
Mesosystem
connections between microsystems, such as home, school, neighborhood
Exosystem
social settings that do not directly include the child but affect their experiences in immediate settings (work place of a parent affects their children)
Macrosystem
cultural values, customs, resources
Chronosystem
temporal dimension of life changes that an be imposed on the child (millennials grew up with different things than the baby boomers)
Dynamic Systems Perspective
-an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills
-system is constantly in motion, reorganizing into more effective means
Hypothesis
prediction drawn directly from a theory
Research Methods
activities of participants
Research Designs
overall plans for research studies
Scientific Method
conceptualize problem -> collect data -> draw conclusions -> revise conclusion and theory
Naturalistic Observation
seen in the field, cannot control conditions
Structured Observation
lab situation set up to evoke behavior of interest, may not be typical everyday behaviors
Clinical Interview
-flexible, conversational style
-participant's point of view
-children may not be good at this
Structured Interview
-ask everyone the same questions in the same way
-may use questionnaires
-can't go as in depth
Case Study
-bring together wide range of information, including interviews, observations, test scores
-unique types of individuals
-may be influenced by researcher biases, findings ma not generalize
Ethnography
-participant observation of a culture or distinct social group
-mix of observations, self-reports, interpretation by investigator
-results can be biased by researcher
-findings limited to individuals and settings studied
Correlational Design
-researchers gather info and make no effort to alter participants' experienced
-limited cause and effect
Correlational Coefficients
-magnitude: strength indicated by a number between 0-1
-positive: one variable goes up, so does the other
-negative: one goes up, the other goes down
Experimental Design
-permits inferences about cause-and-effect relationships
-even-handed procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions
Independent Variable
-experimenter controls
-expected to cause change
Dependent Variable
-measures but does not manipulate
-expected to be influenced by the independent variable
Field Experiment
use rare opportunities for random assignments in natural settings (two different classrooms)
Natural Experiment
compare differences in treatment that already exist
-groups chosen to match characteristics as much as possible
-bilingualism
Longitudinal Experiment
same participants at different ages
Cross-Sectional Experiment
participants at differing ages studied at the same time
Sequential Experiment
similar to cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, conducted at varying times (conduct longitudinal studies with different ages)
Micro-genetic Experiment
take a lot of measurements in a short period of time (best when a person is going through a lot of changes)
Body Growth
-slow regular pace
-girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys until age 9, then trend switches
Secular Trend in Physical Growth
-appear in early life
-increase over childhood and early adolescence
-declines as mature body size is reached
-height stabilized but weigh gain continues
Skeletal Growth in Middle Childhood
-bones lengthen and broaden
-ligaments not firmly attached to bones makes fo good flexibility
-"growing pains"
-age 12 baby teeth -> adult teeth
-get under or over bite
Gray Matter
cell bodies where connections are, peaks in middle childhood and declines because of synaptic pruning
White Matter
connect different parts of gray matter to each other
Synaptic Pruning
synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood and onset of puberty, pruning starts near the time of birth and is completed by the times of sexual maturation in humans
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers enable communication
Causes of Poor Nutrition
-more focus on new friends and activities, less on eating
-children stop eating with family
-more soda and fast food
-malnutrition because of poverty
Overweight and Obesity
-32% overweight, 17% obese
-urbanization and dietary shifts
Causes of Obesity
-hereditary (based on experience with parents not genetics)
-socioeconomic status
-family eating patterns
-seeing food vs. actually being hungry
-lack of physical activity
-television viewing
Family Stressors
-elevated stress hormones signal brain to boost caloric intake
-chronic stress triggers insulin resistance
-insufficient sleep
Consequences of Obesity
-social isolation
-unhappiness and over-eating contribute to one another
-overweight girls more likely to reach puberty earlier
-life chances are reduced
Treating Obesity
-family-based interventions
-rewards for giving up inactivity
-school interventions
-healthier lunches
Problem with Sugar
-drives fat storage
-absorbed by body more quickly
-calorie for calorie, sugar makes you more resistant to insulin
How to stop eating so much sugar
-get rid of sugared liquid
-only eat sugars (carbs) with their natural fiber
-wait 20 minutes before second portions
-screen time minute for minute with physical activity
Myopia
-nearsightedness
-most common vision problem in middle childhood
-increases with SES, affected by screen time
-less natural light, more problems with sight
Otitis Media
-middle ear infections
-common in early childhood
Bedwetting
-nocturnal enuresis
-occurs in 1 in 10 children
-affects more boys than girls
-usually biological
-can be bettered with medication or using urine alarm
Illnesses
-rate of illnesses rise during first 2 years of school because of exposure to sick children and immune system is still developing
Asthma
Less asthma for kids with pets and less clean homes
Severe Illnesses
Affect 2% of children
Interventions for Families with Chronically Ill Children
-health education
-home visits
-disease-specific summer camps
Unintentional Injuries in Middle Childhood
-boys affected more than girls
-motor vehicles most common
-bicycle accidents
Health Education for School-Age Children
-gap remains between knowledge and behavior
-adults should work to reduce environmental health risks
-parents and teachers should model good behaviors
Barriers to Health Education
-health is not important to children
-hard to see connection between now and future
-advertising makes it hard
Gains in Basic Gross Motor Capacities
-flexibility
-balance
-agility
-force
Fine Motor Skills
-writing
-drawing
Changes in Gross Motor Skills
-running faster
-skipping
-vertical jump
-throwing and catching
-kicking
Changes in Fine Motor Skills
-uppercase and lowercase letters
-increased legibility
-organization, detail, depth in drawings
-two dimensional shapes
Individual Differences in Motor Skills
-body build
-family income and parental encouragement
-sex differences
Games with Rules
-emotional and social development
-informal play is declining in industrialized countries as a result of concern about neighborhood safety and TV
Adult-Organized Youth Sports
-half of US children participated in organized sports outside school
-associated with increases in self-esteem and social skills
Providing Developmentally Appropriate Organized Sports
-build on interests
-age-appropriate skills
-limit frequencies and length of practices
-personal and team improvement
Rough and Tumble Play
-friendly chasing and play fighting
-common in mammals
-common among boys
Piaget's Theory
-concrete operational stage
-able to conduct operations with objects (add with physical objects, not mentally)
Conservation
qualities of an object do not change
Decentration
ability to focus on several parts of the problem at one time
Reversibility
thinking through a series of steps and then mentally reversing direction
Classification
-children able to classify objects in a hierarchical manner
-7 to 10 years
-class inclusion
Seriation
-able to put things in order by quantitative dimension
-6 to 7 years
Transitive Inference
doing the thinking mentally
Limitations of Concrete Operational Thought
-works poorly with abstract ideas
-most affective when dealing with concrete info
Continuum of Acquisition
-children master it step by step
-gradual mastery of logical concepts indicates limitations of concrete operational thinking
Follow-Up Research on Concrete Operational Thought
-experience of attending school promotes mastery of Piagetian tasks
-certain informal, non-schooling experiences can also foster operational thought
Neo-Piagetian Theories
-operational thinking represents expansion of information-processing capacity
-central conceptual structures enable children to think effectively in a wide range of situations
Executive Function
-improves, supporting gains in planning strategic thinking, and self-monitoring (marshmallow experiment)
-influenced by combination of heredity and environmental factors
Working-Memory Capacity
-benefits from increased efficiency of thinking
-often deficient in children with persistent learning difficulties in reading and math
-can be increased through direct training
Selective Attention
increased ability to attend only to relevant aspects of task
Flexible Attention
ability to flexibly adapt attention to situational requirements
Planful Attention
increased ability to evaluate a sequence of steps in advance
Rehearsal
repetition
Organization
grouping related items together
Elaboration
creating relationships between pieces of information from different categories
Theory of Mind
-children's theory of what the mind is
-ability to attribute mental states (beliefs, intents, desires to oneself)
-understanding that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives different than their own
Process of Cognitive Self-Regulation
-involves continuously monitoring progress towards a goal
-checking outcomes
-redirecting unsuccessful efforts
-parents and teachers can help by pointing out important features of a task
Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales
-age 2 to adulthood
-5 factors: general knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, basic info processing
Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children
-6 to 10 years
-4 factors: verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed
Defining and Measuring Intelligence
at around age 6, IQ becomes more stable and predicts school performance and education attainment
Current IQ Tests
-provide overall score representing general intelligence and separate scores measuring specific mental abilities
-do not measure all aspects of intelligence
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence
-creative intelligence
-practical intelligence
-analytical intelligence
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
-musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, verbal, linguistic, logical, mathematical, naturalistic, visual spatial
IQ
-heredity: 40% of IQ
-environment: poverty severely depresses intelligence of ethnic minority children
Flynn Effect
generational gains in IQ (not true because schooling has just gotten better)
Cultural Influences on IQ
-language use on tests could only apply to white test takers
-specific knowledge only acquired through majority culture upbringing
-stereotypes: fear of being judged by negative stereotype (girls math example)
Academic Achievement and Class Size
-smaller classes during K-3 predicts greater likelihood of graduating from high school
-teachers in small classes spend less time disciplining
-better concentration
-more class participation
Metalinguistic Awareness
understands words and what they are used for
Language Development
-vocabulary increases four-fold because of reading
-grasp double meanings and puns
-mastery of grammar increases
-use of narratives
Bilingual
-either learn two at once or one and then the other
-code switching: change languages in the same sentence
-more efficient with executive function skills (suppress other languages)
Industry vs. Inferiority
-industry: developing a sense of competence at useful
(combines positive but realistic self-concept pride in accomplishment, moral responsibility)
-inferiority: pessimism and lack of confidence in one's ability to do things well
Self-Concept
-refined and organized into stable and psychological dispositions
-children form an ideal self that they use to evaluate actual self
Influences on Self-Concept
-cognitive development influences structure of self
-cognitive capacities and feedback from others influence content of self-concept
-depend on culture: asian parents want interdependence and western want self-assertion
Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood
differentiates and adjusts to more realistic level
Four Broad Self-Evaluations
academic, social, physical/athletic, physical (correlates most with self concept)
Influences on Self-Esteem
-cultural values
-gender-stereotyped beliefs
-child rearing practices (authoritative parents build self-esteem while controlling parents undermine self-esteem)
Attributions
explain causes of behaviors
Mastery-Oriented Attributions
-attribute success to ability
-focus on learning goals
Learned Helplessness
-success is attributed to luck
-focus on performance goals
Person Praise vs. Process Praise
you are smart vs. you worked very hard
Learning vs Grades
people care more about their grades than actually learning
Cognitive Development
more realistic view of abilities
Emotional Development
-self-conscious emotions (pride and guilt)
-clearly governed by personal responsibility even when no adult is present
-pride= further challenges
-guilt= make amends and strive for self-improvement
Emotional Understanding
-explain emotion by referring to internal states
-appreciated of mixed emotions
Emotional Self-Regulation
-coping with stress: problem-centered vs. emotion-centered coping
Emotional Self-Efficacy
-being in control of emotional experience
-fosters favorable self-image
Moral Rules
consideration of intentions and context of violations
Peer Groups
form on basis of proximity and similarity
Peer Culture
involves specialized vocab, dress code, place to hang out
Trust
defining feature of friendship
Likeability
extent to which a child is viewed as a worthy social partner
Categories of Peer Acceptance
-popular children
-rejected children
-controversial children
-neglected children
-average children
Ways to Help Rejected Children
combine social skills training with other treatments
Bullies
-20% are bullies
-~25% are repeatedly victimized
-20-40% of youths have been cyber bullied
Approaches to Reduce Bullying
-change victimized children's negative opinions about themselves
-help acquire social skills
-change environment to promote pro-social attitudes and behaviors
Coregulation
letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making
Immediate Consequences of Parental Divorce
-instability
-conflict
-drop in income
-parental stres
-disorganized family life
Factors that Influence Children's Adjustment to Divorce
-sex of child
-which parent remarries
-temperament
-mother's professional life
-father involvement
Benefits of Maternal Employment
-children have higher self-esteem
-positive family and peer relations
-fewer gender stereotypes
-better grades
-more father involvement
Factors Relating to Child Sexual Abuse
-more often against girls
-male abuser
-either parent or someone that knows parents well
-technology
Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse
-anxiety
-depression
-low self-esteem
-mistrust of adults
-anger
-sleep difficulties
-loss of appetite
-generalized fearfulness
Prevention and Treatment
-long-term therapy with both children and parents
-justice system
-educational programs