communication
the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another--is an activity that you as a manager will have to do a lot of
efficient communicator
when you can transmit our message accurately in the least time
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effective communcator
when your intended message is accurately understood by the other person
sender
the person wanting to share information
message
the information
receiver
the person for whom the message is intended
encoding
is translating a message into understandable symbols or language
decoding
interpreting and trying to make sense of the message
the communication process
sender (encoding)---message (medium) message---(decoding) receiver
medium
the pathway by which a message travels
-the means by which a message is sent (email traveling over Internet, voice over phone, hand note)
feedback
whereby the receiver expresses his or her reaction to the sender's message
-essential in communication so that the person sending the message can know whether the receiver understood it in the same way the sender intended--and whether he agrees with it
-Roger, I copy
-can be facilitated with paraphrasing
pharaphrasing
occurs when people restate in their words the crux of what they heard or read
-it clarifies that a message was accurately understood
noise
-disruption, any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message
-can occur in the medium or it can occur in the encoding or decoding, as when pharmacist can't read handwriting of prescription
noise in nonverbal communication
physical movements send a message that is different from the one we are speaking
noise in cross cultural communication
when we make assumptions about other people's messages based on our own culture instead of theirs
media richness
indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning
-the richer the medium, the better it is at conveying info
-proposed by Richard Daft and Robert Lengel as part of their contingency model for media selection
high media richness to low media richness
(best for nonroutine, ambiguous situations)
1. face to face presence
2. videoconferencing
3. telephone
4. personal written media (email, text, memos, letters)
5. impersonal written media (newspapers, fliers, general reports)
(best for routine, clear situations)
face to face communication vs. impersonal written media
1-most personal communication form, is the richest, allows the receiver of the message to observe multiple cues, such as body lang and tone of voice, allows sender to get immediate feedback, to see how well the receiver comprehended the message
2- only one cue and no feedback, so low in richness
rich medium:
-best for nonroutine situations and to avoid oversimplification
-more effective with nonroutine
-danger of it for routine matters is that it results in information overloading--more info than necessary
lean medium
-best for routine situations and to avoid overloading
-more effective with routine situations
the danger is that it results in information oversimplification--doesn't provide enough of the info the receiver wants and needs
-email, FB and twitter messages vary in media richness, being leaner if they impersonally blanket a large audience and richer if they mix personal textual and video info that prompts quick conversational feedback
formal communication channels
follow the chain of command and are recognized as official
-letters, memos, reports, announcements
formal communication is of three types
1. vertical (meaning upward and downward)
2. horizontal- meaning laterally (sideways)
3. external--meaning outside the organization
1. vertical communication
flow of messages up and down the hierarchy within the organization: bosses communicating with subordinates, subordinates communicating with bosses
-the more management levels through which a message passes, the more prone to distortion
downward communication
-from top to bottom
-flows from a higher level to a lower level (or levels)
-in small organizations, may be delivered face to face and in larger organizations, it's delivered via meetings, email, official memos, and company publications
upward communication
from bottom to top
-flows from a lower level to a higher level(s)
-often this type is from a subordinate to his immediate manager who in tun will relay it up to the next level
-effective upward depends on an atmosphere of trust (especially when bearing bad news)
downward communication: involves one of the following kinds of info
1. instructions related to particular job tasks (supervisor to subordinate, store will close Monday for inventory. all employees must participate)
2. explanations about the relationship btw two or more tasks (while taking inventory, see what things are missing. most of that might be attributable to shoplifting)
3. explainations of the organization's procedures and practices (start counting things on high shelves)
4. a manager's feedback about a subordinate's performance (best not to count too fast)
5. attempts to encourage a sense of mission and dedication to the organization's goals (by keeping tabs on inventory, we can keep prices down and maintain reputation)
upward communication: involves one of the following kinds of info
1. reports of progress on current projects (we shut down the store yesterday to take inventory)
2. reports of unsolved problems requiring help from ppl higher up (we can't make our count without stock reports)
3. new developments affecting the work unit (getting help from the other stores really speeded things up this year)
4. suggestions for improvement (stores should loan each other staff when they take inventory)
5. reports on employee attitudes and efficiency (staff likes it when they go to another store and sometimes they pick up some new ways)
2. horizontal communication
-flows within and between work units, its main purpose is coordination
-consulting with colleagues and coworkers at the same level as you within the organization
-sharing info, coordinating tasks, solving problems, resolving conflicts, and getting the support of your peers
-it is encouraged through the use of committees, task forces, and matrix structures
horizontal communication can be impeded in 3 ways:
1. by specialization that makes ppl focus just on their jobs alone
2. by rivalry btw workers or work units, which prevents sharing of info
3. by lack of encouragement from management
3. external communcation
flows between people inside and outside the organization
-stakeholders, customers, suppliers, shareholders, or other owners
informal communication channels
develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command--they skip management levels and cut across lines of authority
to types of informal channels are
1. grapevine
2. management by wandering around
grapevine
the unofficial communication system of the informal organization, a network of gossip and rumor of what is called employee language
-grapevine is faster than formal channels, is 75% accurate, and is used by employees when they are insecure threatened, or faced with organizational change
-employee lang known as "gossip" can be notoriously misleading and a great reducer of morale in a dysfunctional company
management by wandering around (MBWA)
the term used to describe a manager's literally wandering around his organization and talking with ppl across all lines of authority
-helps reduce the problems of distortion that inevitably occur with formal communication flowing up a hierarchy
-allows managers to listen to employees and learn about problems, as well as express to them what values/goals are important
barrier
anything interfering with accurate communication between two ppl
3 types of barriers
1. physical
2. semantic
3. personal
sender barrier
-no message gets sent
(manager has an idea but is afraid to voice bc fear criticism)
encoding barrier
-the message is not expressed correctly
(vocab is lacking or English not first language)
medium barrier
-the communication channel is blocked
(phone has a busy signal or network is down)
decoding barrier
-the recipient doesn't understand the message
(u afraid to show ignorance when someone is throwing computer terms at you and says that your computer connection has a bandwidth problem)
receiver barrier
-no message gets received
(bc you were talking to coworker, u weren't listening when supervisor announced assignments)
feedback barrier
-the recipient doesn't respond enough
(u give someone directions, but since they only nod heads and don't repeat, you don't really know if they understood)
1. physical barriers
-sound, time, space
-distance, time zone, telephone line static, crashed computers, office walls
2. semantic barriers
-when words matter
"We need to get this done? what does we mean in this context
-often encountered when dealing with other cultrues
semantics
study of the meaning of words
jargon
terminology specific to a particular profession or group
buzzwords
such as "leverage" "interface" "circle back" -annoying words primarily designed to impress rather than inform
3. personal barriers
-individual attributes that hinder communication
9 personal barriers that contribute to miscommunication
1. variable skills in communicating effectively
2. variations in how info is processed and interpreted (bc ppl use different frames of reference and experiences to interpret the world around them, they are selective about what things have meaning to them, and that affects what we say and what we thing we hear)
3. variations in trustworthiness and credibility (w/o trust communication is flawed, instead u will be focused on defensive tactics, not the meaning of the message being exchanged)
4. oversized egos
5. faulty listening skills (listen when they are talking)
6. tendency to judge others' messages (have a natural tendency to judge others' statements from our own point of view)
7. inability to listen with understanding (have have to imagine yourself in other person's shoes, when you listen with understanding it makes you feel less defensive and improves your accuracy in perceiving the message)
8. sterotypes and prejudices
9. nonverbal communication
1. variable skills in communicating effectively
-some ppl are better communicators than others, vocab, writing ability, speaking skills, facial expressions, eye contact, dramatic ability, the fit of gab, the social skills to express themselves in a superior way
-better communication skills can be learned
defensive communication
either aggressive, attacking, angry communication or passive, withdrawing communication
-"you're always late" can spur this, as well as using evaluative or judgmental comments
non defensive communciation
communication that is assertive, direct, and powerful
-the better alternative
rules for nondefensive communication
1. define the situation
2. clarify the person's position
3. acknowledge the person's feelings
4. bring the focus back to the facts
they help bolster the ongoing feedback process so essential to the true understanding in communication
4. oversized egos
-pride, self esteem, arrogance
-egos can cause political battles, turf wars, and the passionate pursuit of power, credit, and resources
-egos influence how we treat each other as well as how receptive we are to being influenced by others
-big egos a factor when managers tune out workers' ideas, ppl tend to dismiss others' advice when making decisions
-ppl with high pwr tend to discount advice from experts and novices equally
stereotype
consists of oversimplified beliefs about a certain group of people
nonverbal communication
consists of messages sent outside of the written or spoken word
-gestures and facial expressions, body language, eye contact, expressions, moods
-65% of every convo is partially interpreted through nonverbal communication
six ways in which nonverbal communication is expressed are through
1. eye contact
2. facial expressions
3. body movements and gestures
4. touch
5. setting
6. time
1. eye contact
and the four functions in communication
1. signals the beginning and end of a conversation, there is a tendency to look away from others when beginning to speak and to look at them when done
2. is expresses emotion, for instance, most ppl tend to avoid eye contact when conveying bad news or negative feedback
3. gazing monitors feedback because it reflects interest and attention
4. depending on the culture, gazing also expresses the type of relationship btw the ppl communication
2. facial expressions
interpretations of facial expressions don't apply across cultures, a smile doesn't convey the same emotions in different countries
3. body movements and gestures
-leading forward, pointing
-open body positions, such as leaning backward, express openness, warmth, closeness, and availability for communication
-closed body positions such as folding arms or corssing one's legs, represent defensiveness
4. touch
vary significantly around the world, men and women interpret touching differently, with women tending to do more touching during convo than men, if women touch men, it is viewed as sexual, same when men touch other men
-good teams tend to use touch more than bad teams
5. setting
location of an office, its size, and choice of furniture often express the accessibility of the person in it
6. time
-always give ppl who work for you adequate time, you should talk with them frequently so they will understand your itnerest
suggestions for nonverbal communcation
DO:
-maintain eye contact
-lean toward the speaker
-speak at a moderate rate
-speak in a quiet, reassuring tone
-smile and show animation
-occasionally nod head in agreement
-be aware of facial expressions
DON'T:
-look away from speaker
-turn away from speaker
-speak too quickly or slowly
-speak in an unpleasant tone
-yawn excessively
-close your eyes
-lick lips, bite nails, play with your hair
men are said
to be overconfident when recalling accomplishments, better able to convince peers (women recall accomplishments more accurately, putting them at competitive disadvantage)
-likely to bargain over starting pay, women tend to hone their negotiation skills or else they will fall behind
genderflex
temporarily use communication behaviors typical of the other gender to increase the potential for influence
(female manager may use sports analogies to motivate a group of males)
communication differences:
taking credit
men
-greater use of I statements, more likely to boast about achievements
women
-greater use of we statements, less likely to boast about achievements
communication differences:
displaying confidence
men
-less likely to indicate that they are uncertain about an issue
women
-more likely to indicate a lack of certainty about an issue
communication differences:
asking questions
men
-less likely to ask questions
women
-more likely to ask questions
communication differences:
conversation rituals
men
-avoid making apologies bc it puts them in a one-down positions
women
-more frequently say "I'm sorry"
communication differences:
giving feedback
men
-more direct and blunt
women
-more tactful, tend to temper criticism with praise
communication differences:
giving compliments
men
-stingy with praise
women
-pay more compliments than men do
communication differences:
indirectness
men
-indirect when it comes to admitting fault or when they don't know something
women
-indirect when telling others what to do
linguistic style
is a person's characteristic speaking patterns-pacing, pausing, directness, word choice, and use of questions, jokes, stories, apologies, and similar devices
-raise hand, speak out easily without waiting, comfortable speaking in groups are more apt to be heard
coaches
-although men hold most of the top corporate jobs, when they want advice of an executive coach--a trained listener to help them with their goals and personal problems---they usually turn to a women
-females always want female coaches
-good coaches are intuitive communications and have done personal development work
-man to man like to compete
soft skills
emotion in relationships, used to communicate, build teams, and develop flexibility
-programs designed to teach men these
multicommunicating
represents "the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time"
-answering emails during a lecture, texting during dinner convo or while participating in group conference call
-enables us to get more things done in shorter amount of time, there are a few times and places when it can create miscommunication and lead to stress and hurt feelings
the act of using technologies such as email, texting, FB, and twitter may influence the content of our communications
-peers rate each other differently depending on the medium they use, ppl being more likely to trash colleagues via email than when filling out a paper form
-faster communication doesn't mean better or more productive, effective teams had more face to face than digital encounters
"always on" generation
Net Generation, Gen Y, the Millenials, ppl born 1977 to 1997
-accustomed to spending 8 hours a day or more looking at various screens--cell, computer, TV
-more likely to sleep with cells next to bed compared w/ Gen X and Baby Boomers
-most avid users of FB
-if you are an 18-24 you generally watch smallest amt of live TV compared with any other age, but you spend most itme texting and watching online
iGeneration
technology is simply a part of their DNA
eight norms of the millennial or internet generation
1. freedom
2. customization
3. scrutiny
4. integrity
5. collaboration
6. entertainment
7. speed
8. innovation
1. freedom
-the desire to experience new and different things
-this norm, which takes precedence over long term commitments is expressed in desire for flexible work hours and locations, to have say in how things are done, freedom of choice
2. customization
-the desire to have personalized products and choices
3. scrutiny
-not taking facts and authority figures at face values
-knowing there is both treasure and trash on internet, learned to be skeptical, check things out, ask probing questions
-candor and straight talk are favored
4. integrity
-trust in people, products, and employers is important
-honesty, transparency, keeping commitments
5. collaboration
-relationships are of key importance
-value volunteering, knowing when to work and play with others, eager to offer opinions and suggestions
6. entertainment
-keep things moving and interesting
-challenging and fun, Internet is not only a productivity tool and info source but also a personal communication device and fun tool of choice
7. speed
-instant feedback is expected
-rapid fire, instant messaging, leads them to urge faster decision making and feedback on job performance
8. innovation
-impatience for new and different user experiences
-traditional hierarchy rejected in favor of work processes that encourage collaboration and creativity
6 types of rewards
high quality colleagues
flexible work arrangements
prospects for advancement
recognition from one's company or boss
steady rate of advancement and promotion
access to new experiences and challenges
video conferencing
-fuel by recession induced cutbacks in travel budgets
-also known as teleconferencing
-using video and audio links along with computers to allow ppl in different locations to see, hear, and talk with one another
-doesn't beat face to face meetings for opening a relationship/decision
telepresence technology
high definition video conference systems that simulate face-to-face meetings btw users
-expensive
whereas traditional videoconferencing systems can be set up in a conventional conference room, telepresence systems
require specially designed room with multiple cameras and high definition video screens, stimulating the sensation of 2 groups of ppl at identical tables facing each other through windows
telecommunitng
involves doing work that is generally performed in the office away form the office using IT
-employees receive and send work from home via phone or fax or using a modem to link home to office computer
among the benefits of telecommuting
1. reduction of capital costs (bc work at home)
2. increased flexibility and autonomy for workers
3. competitive edge in recruiting hard to get employees
4. increased job satisfaction and lower turnover
5. increased productivity
6. ability to tap nontraditional labor pools (such as inmates)
teleworking
virtual office, it encompasses not just working from home but working from anywhere "a client's office, a coffee shop, an airport lounge, a commuter train"
-with cellphones, broadband at home, Wifi, virtual private networks and instant messaging becoming ubiquitous, telework has become easier
-some who lack conventional office may sign up for shared, coworking spaces
asynchronous communication
team members can work on the same project at different times
synchronous communication
employees in different locations and time zones can work simultaneously
downside of the digital age
lack of focus, security, privacy, email overkill, and cell phone abuse
security
defined as a system of safeguarding for protecting information technology against disasters, systems failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss
-continuing challenge, with computer and cell users constantly having to deal with threats ranging from malicious software (malware) that tries to trick ppl into yielding passwords, SS numbers, and financial info to deviant programs (viruses) that can destroy or corrupt data
the key to protecting diginital communication systems against fraud, hackers, identity theft, and other threats is
prevention
some ways to protect yourself
1. don't use passwords that can be easily guessed
2. don't use the same password for multiple sites
3. don't reveal sensitive information
4. be careful about free and illegal downloads
5. be mindful of liability issues, employees routinely monitor employee email for offensive messages or risky material that may expose them to lawsuits
6. keep antivirus software updated
privacy
the right of people not to reveal information about themselves
privacy threats
-mitigation (when a company sells a customer list to another company)
-online snooping
-gov't prying and spying
18-29 year olds have been found to be more likely than older users of social networks to keep a
keen eye on their online profiles and who can access them
identity theft
in which thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things
average worker receives
200 emails a day
some disadvantages of email
1. there has been a decrease in all other forms of communication among coworkers--including greetings and informal convos
2. emotions often are poorly communicated or miscommunicated via email messages
3. the greater the use of email, the less connected coworkers reportedly feel
tips for handling email
1. treat all email as confidential
2. be careful with jokes and informality
3. avoid sloppiness, but avoid criticizing others' sloppiness
4. when replying, quote only the relevant portion
5. not every topic belongs on email
cell phones are now mostly smartphones
cell phone problems
1. merely annoying (loud ring tone and conversations in public)
2. unethical and illegal (porn and photographing restricted areas of materials)
3. deadly (distracting drivers from the road)
-social skills worse now and think that mobile phones have encouraged rudeness
5 rules for using smartphone
1. keep your voice down
2. don't force the public to have to listen to your convos
3. during meetings and public performances, shut off the ringer, set the phone on vibrate
4. don't text during meetings or other convos
5. don't dial or text while driving
social media
internet based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network
-2/3rd of online adults in the US use social media platforms such as FB, twitter, insta, or linkedin mainly to stay in touch with current friends and family members and to connect with old friends whom they've lost touch
the essence of social media is
connectivity
digital media in many cases
is proving to be a faster and cheaper way for brands to reach customers
-it stimulates employee productivity by offering them opportunities for more creativity and collaboration and more job satisfaction and better work life balance, resulting in increased performance and retention
if connectivity is employed effectively, social media enables businesses to do the following
1. connect with key stakeholders (customers, suppliers, employees, potential talent)
2. connect with varied sources of expertise inside the organizations (w/ virtual teams, redefining conventional organizational boundaries and drawing on different sources of talent, knowledge, experience)
3. connect with varied sources of expertise outside the organization
if social media is not managed effectively, social media can create many
legal, financial, and personnel risks
and it can lead to hiring discrimination, excessive self promotion, and decision making based on political stances
crowdsourcing
obtaining services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, especially the online community of FB and twitter
a variant is crowdfunding
raising money via online sources
the drawbacks of social media
1. distraction
2. leaving wrong impression (think before making an announcement or responding)
3. replacing real conversation (don't substitute for face to face convo, it makes us feel lonely)
recommendations when using FB
1. brand the product or organizational profile, but go light on sales messages
2. use lang relevant to audience members and communicate with, not at, them. show appreciation
3. wall posts are public
4. all updates should be relevant
5. take customer sensitive issues off FB, into a private sphere, online or offline
6. ask questions on the wall posts, but follow up and respond to any feedback received
generally ppl comprehend only about 35% of a typical verbal message, the avg speaker communicates 125 words per minute, while we can process
500 words per minute
poor listeners use this info processing gap to daydream, but good listeners known how to use these gaps effectively by
mentally summarizing the speaker's remarks, weighing the evidence, and listening btw lines
active listening
the process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages
-requires full attention and processing info, which hearing doesn't
5 styles of listening
1. appreciate style
2. empathic style
3. comprehensive style
4. discerning style
5. evaluative style
1. appreciate style
-listening to be amused
-tends to listen for pleasure, doing easy listening and tending to tune out when there's no amusement or humor in what he is listening to
2. empathic style
-tuning into the speaker's emotions
-focuses on the speaker's feelings, concentrating on what he sees as well as says and reading ppl's body lang and reactions
3. comprehensive style
-focusing on the speaker's logic
-tries to determine the rationale of the speaker's argument, preferring logical presentations without interruptions, focusing on relationships among ideas, relating messages to his own experiences, waiting until all info is available before expressing opinions
4. discerning style
-focusing on the main message
-tries to determine the speaker's main message and important points, often taking notes and concentrating hard on what speaker says, good listeners and like info that flows evently
5. evaluative style
-challenging the speaker
-listen analytically, all the while formulating challenges to the speaker's points, asking lots of questions, and sometimes tuning out the speaker and missing data, if they receive too much illogical info, they often leave
effective listening is a learned skill, but it takes energy to develop and it basically comes down to
pay attention to the content of the message
tips for effective listening
1. show respect (give everyone opportunity to explain ideas)
2. listen from the first sentence (turn off your internal thoughts and whatever you were thinking about prior)
3. be mindful (stay in the moment and focus on sender, don't try to figure out what he is going to say)
4. keep quiet (80/20 rule: you speak 20% other person speaks 80%)
5. ask questions (clarifies what is being said)
6. paraphrase and summarize (summarizing used to integrate and consolidate an entire convo, both enhance accuracy bc they help ensure messages are being understood correctly)
7. remember what was said (take notes, mental computer)
8. involve your body (use nonverbal cues to demonstrate interest/involvement)
effective reader
concentrate on content, judge the content not delivery, concentrate on main ideas
speed reading isn't effective, speed reading or skimming may work well with easy or familiar reading material, but
it can lead to problems with dense or unfamiliar reading
the key to reading better is to be a productive rather than
passive reader
-produce meaningful connections btw what you know and what you're reading
-top down strategy SQ3R
Survey
Question
Read
Recite
Review
5 steps to be a better reader
1. rate reasons to read
2. question and predict answers
3. survey the big picture
4. skim for main ideas
5. summarize
writing is essential management skill
-more upper level executives have to do their own correspondence now
5 rules for business writing, both online and offline
DON'T
1. begin email with hey
2. use abbreviations
DO
3. spell words correctly
4. complete sentences
5. proper capitalization and punctuation
3 strategies for laying out your ideas in writing
1. most important to least important (good strategy when action you want reader to take is logical and not highly political)
2. least controversial to most controversial (builds support gradually and best used when the decision is controversial or reader is attached to a particular solution other than one you're proposing)
3. negative to positive (establishes a common ground with your reader and puts positive argument last)
start with purpose
and what you expect of reader
keep words simple and use short
words, sentences, phrases
be direct instead of vague and use active voice rather than passive
make writing as easy to read as possible, using tools of highlighting and white space
1. highlighting- boldface and italics to emphasize key concepts and introduce new concepts and bullets to emphasize list items (don't use all caps)
2. white space- wide margins and break btw paragraphs produces page that is clean and attractive
top predictor of success and professional upward mobility is how much you
enjoy public speaking and how effective you are at it
the biggest problem most ppl have with public speaking is
controlling their nerves and the activity they dread the most is public speaking
(prepare nerves by practicing speech until it's nearly perfect, visualize performing well, get reassurance from friend, get to speaking site early and releasing physical tension by deep breathing
speech comprises of 3 simple rules
1. tell them what you're going to say (intro should take 5-15%, prepare audience for rest of the speech, avoid jokes and tired phrases, try to go right to the point)
2. say it (main body is 75-90%, 3 or 4 points to be remembered and cover those, transitions)
3. tell them what you said (5-10%, strong, solid, persuasive wrap up, the last thing you say should be upbeat, a call to action, through for the day, little story, quotation, say thank you)